BAROQUE MUSIC Baroque DATES: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.) BAROQUE: From the Portuguese word “barroco” meaning an ornamented piece of jewellery. First used to describe the highly decorative style of architecture at the time. Fingerprints of musical style Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture – melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures. The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece – providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a “walking bass”) making the music move steadily onwards. The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece. The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis – always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture. Fingerprints 2 The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17th century; music is now based on major and minor scales. Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue. Main types of Baroque music: vocal – chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; instrumental – Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto. Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (“terraced dynamics”, sometimes echo effects), and “blocks” of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together). Instruments-Harpsichord A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet. All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings. Baroque Orchestra Typical features include: Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums. Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass), Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures. Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo. Baroque Orchestra The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingtquatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping. Typical forms used by Baroque composers Binary (AB) Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA) Rondo (ABACADA) Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia) Ritornello form Fugue Main types of Baroque music VOCAL – OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata; INSTRUMENTAL – CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), OPERA Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the words The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra. ORATORIO An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries. Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet. CONCERTO GROSSO The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling). Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Händel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin. SOLO CONCERTO In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore. The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo. The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition. Ritornello form In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form. The music starts off with the ritornello (little return) played by the ripieno group (tutti meaning “all”) with the soloist(s) joining in. This is the main theme and it returns at various points throughout the movement. It may reappear in full or in shortened form. Ritornello structure Between appearances of the ritornello there are contrasting sections of music called episodes. Ritornello Episode1 Ritornello Episode2 Ritornello Tutti Soloist(s) Tutti Soloist(s) Tutti FUGUE In music, a fugue is a type of contrapuntal composition. It begins with a theme stated by one of the voices playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the same theme, while the first voice continues on with a contrapuntal accompaniment. The remaining voices enter one by one, each beginning by stating the same theme. The remainder of the fugue develops the material further using all of the voices and, usually, multiple statements of the theme. Middle and late Baroque composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (1637–1707) and Johann Pachelbel (1653– 1706) contributed greatly to the development of the fugue, and the form reached ultimate maturity in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). IDENTIFY THE FORM 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CONCERTO GROSSO ORATORIO FUGUE OPERA SOLO CONCERTO What is ornamentation? In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or "ornament" that line. They are performed as "fast notes" around a central note. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to relatively little or even none. In the baroque period, it was common for performers to improvise ornamentation on a given melodic line. A singer performing a da capo aria, for instance, would sing the melody relatively unornamented the first time, but decorate it with additional flourishes the second time. Trill The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare tremolo). In modern musical notation a trill is generally indicated with the letters tr above the trilled note. This has sometimes been followed by a squiggly line, and sometimes in the past, the squiggly line on its own was used. The following two notations are equivalent: Trill The usual way of executing a trill is to rapidly alternate between the note indicated and the note directly above it in the given scale Acciaccatura From the Italian word acciaccare, "to crush"; The acciaccatura, is perhaps best thought of as a shorter, less melodically significant type of ornament. It is written using a grace note (often a quaver, or eighth note), with an oblique stroke through the stem: Acciaccatura The exact interpretation of this will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but the following is possible: A short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is indicated by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff. An inverted turn (the note below the one indicated, the note itself, the note above it, and the note itself again) is usually indicated by putting a short vertical line through the normal turn sign, though sometimes the sign itself is turned upside down. If the turn symbol is placed directly above a note, it is performed exactly as outlined above. If it is placed between two notes, however, the note before the symbol is played, then the turn, and then the following note. So the following turns: might be played like this: The mordent is thought of as a rapid single alternation between an indicated note, the note above (called the upper mordent) or below (called the lower mordent or mordent) the indicated note, and the indicated note again. The upper mordent is indicated by a short squiggle; the lower mordent is the same with a short vertical line through it: As with the trill, the exact speed with which the mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but at moderate tempi the above might be executed as follows: From the Italian word appoggiare, "to lean upon"; The appoggiatura is important melodically and often suspend the principal note by taking away the timevalue of the appoggiatura prefixed to it The added note (the unessential note) is one degree higher or lower than the principal note. The appoggiatura is written as a grace note prefixed to a principal note and printed in small character, usually without the oblique stroke: This would be played as follows: Baroque composers J.S. Bach Handel Vivaldi A.Scarlatti Telemann D. Scarlatti Purcell Couperin Monteverdi Rameau Corelli Lully J.S. Bach 1685-1750 Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas J.S. Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany. He came from a long family history of professional musicians including church organists and composers. Johann Sebastian Bach was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the baroque genre and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Although he introduced no new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust contrapuntal technique, a control of harmonic and motivic organisation from the smallest to the largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France. Many people consider him to be the greatest Baroque composer, and one of the greatest composers of all time. He was one of the leading figures, along with the likes of George Frideric Handel, in the transition from baroque to Classical music G.F. Handel 1685-1759 Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites. He was a German/British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. Born in Germany as Georg Friedrich Händel he lived most of his adult life in England, becoming a subject of the British crown in 1727. His most famous piece is Messiah, an oratorio set to texts from the King James Bible; other well-known works are Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. He deeply influenced many of the composers who came after him, including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and his work helped lead the transition from the Baroque to the Classical era. Monteverdi 1567-1643 Operas- Orfeo, Arianna Motets Madrigals Vespers His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. During his long life he produced work that can be classified in both categories, and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera, Orfeo, and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime. Alessandro Scarlatti 1659-1725 Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. He was especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father of two other Baroque composers, Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti. Opera- Pompeo The first composer to strongly differentiate between the singing styles Cantatas- over 600 of aria and recitative and used 6 Concerto Grossi advanced harmonic procedures for the Oratorios time. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757 Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. He was extremely influential in the development of keyboard music, especially in Spain, Portugal and England, through his individual style. A harpsichord virtuoso from a young age, he revolutionised keyboard technique. First to use rapid arpeggios, repetition of the same note and the crossing of hands. He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. Telemann 1681-1767 Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites He was a German composer, and organist. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. The most prolific composer of his era, he was a contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach and a friend of George Frideric Handel. While in the present day Bach is generally thought of as the greater composer, Telemann was widely renowned for his musical abilities during his lifetime. Telemann traveled widely, absorbing various musical styles and incorporating them into his own compositions. He is known for writing concertos for unusual combinations of instruments, such as multiple violas or trumpets. He held a series of important musical positions, culminating in that of music director of the five largest churches in Hamburg, from 1720 until his death in 1767. He was succeeded by his godson Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Corelli 1653- 1713 12 Concerto Grossi 5 sets (of 12) Trio Sonatas Italian composer, teacher and violinist. His playing and composing were an influence on Bach and he taught Vivaldi. He is known as “The father of Concerto Grosso” for his work in defining the style. Despite being influential he was not a prolific composer. Purcell 1659-1695 Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation English composer and organist. He is generally considered to be one of England's greatest composers — indeed, he has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music Composed an enormous amount of theatrical music for plays including The Fairy Queen, a masque for A Midsummer's Night Dream, King Arthur and Indian Queen. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Vivaldi 1678-1741 Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons Italian priest, composer and violinist. He is one of the composers credited with helping the Baroque style evolve into the Classical style by his use of harmonic contrasts and innovative melodies and themes. Bach was deeply influenced by his concertos and arias and transcribed many of Vivaldi's works for harpsichord. He was an extremely prolific composer. Lully 1632-1687 Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites Italian born French composer, guitarist, violinist and dancer. Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Rameau 1683-1764 Composer, organist and harpsichordist He was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced JeanBaptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera, and was attacked by those who preferred Lully's style. Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord) Francois Couperin Harpsichord and organ works Suites François Couperin (born in Paris November 10, 1668 – died September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. François Couperin was known as "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of the musically talented Couperin family because of his immense virtuosity on the organ and the harpsichord. He was indebted to Corelli whose Trio Sonata form he introduced to France. J.S. Bach was an admirer of his harpsichord technique and compositions. QUIZ TRY YOUR NEW FOUND KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS INTERACTIVE QUIZ. JUST CLICK ON THE ANSWER AND FIND OUT IF YOU ARE RIGHT. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI Italian composer, teacher and violinist. 1653- 1713 He is known as “The father of Concerto Grosso” for his work in defining the style. 12 Concerto Grossi TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1688- 1733 Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist. Harpsichord and organ works Suites TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI He was an Italian composer and harpsichordist. 1685- 1757 Over 500 harpsichord sonatas. 14 Sinfonias Harpsichord Concerto •He wrote a lot of works with a Moorish/ Arabic flavour as the result of living in Portugal and Spain for long periods of his life. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1681- 1767 Opera- Pimpone (46) St Luke Passion St Mark Passion St Matthew Passion 1043 Cantatas Over 25 Solo Concertos Over 600 Suites TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1659-1695 Composer and organist. One of his favourite styles of writing was the Ground Bass. Opera- Dido and Aeneas 15 Fantasies Trio Sonatas Anthems- My heart is inditing for James 2 Coronation TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1567-1643 His work marks the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. Operas- Orfeo, Motets Madrigals Vespers TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1659-1725 Italian composer who had written his first opera by the age of 12. Credited with popularising the Da Capo Aria form. Opera- Pompeo Cantatas- over 600 6 Concerto Grossi Oratorios TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1632-1687 Spent most of his working life in the service of Louis 14th where he composed ballets and later operas. He transformed the often stately court dances into lively, rhythmic affairs and added many instruments to the orchestra of the time. He favoured variation forms such as Passacaglias and Chaconnes. Opera- Atys Ballets Dance Suites TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1685-1750 Mass in B minor Brandenburg Concertos St Matthew Passion St John Passion Suites (English, French) 48 Preludes and Fugues Christmas Oratorio Solo Concertos Organ Works Cantatas TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1683-1764 Composer, organist and harpsichordist Operas Ballet Music Pieces de Clavecin (for harpsichord) TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1685-1759 Oratorios- Messiah Acis and Galatea 14 Operas-incl. Lotario Ariodante, Alcina and Rodelinda. Water Music Royal Fireworks 18 Organ Concertos 12 Concerto Grossi Sonatas and Suites. TELEMANN HANDEL COUPERIN PURCELL VIVALDI LULLY J.S.BACH A.SCARLATTI RAMEAU MONTEVERDI D.SCARLATTI CORELLI 1678-1741 Over 500 Concertos 46 Operas 73 Sonatas Oratorios and sacred music The Four Seasons Quiz What What What What What is is is is is a concerto grosso? a solo concerto? an oratorio? an opera? a fugue?