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Lecture 17
Review for Exam 2
Chapters Covered
Chapter
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Title
Lecture
Time and Geology
10
Mass Wasting
11
Streams and Floods
12
Ground Water
13
Glaciers and Glaciation
14
Deserts and Wind Action
15
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
16
Time and Geology
Concepts
Deep Time
Relative Time
Principles of Relative Time
Types of Unconformity
Methods of Correlation
Standard Geologic Time Scale
Divisions
Meanings of Era Names
When do we live?
Absolute Time
Isotopes
Radioactive Decay
Types
Important Decay Systems
Isotopic Dating
Principles
Uses
Time and Geology
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Figures 8.1-8.11 Geologic History of Minor Canyon
Figure 8.12 Age relationships indicated by contact metamorphism ...
Figure 8.20 Use of fossil assemblages
Figure 8.22 Three modes of radioactive decay
Table 8.3 Radioactive Isotopes Commonly Used for Dating
Figure 8.27 Deep Time thought experiment
Lab Manual
Figure 8.1 Three common types of unconformity
Figures 8.2 - 8.12 Examples of use of relative dating principles
Figure 8.16 Radioactive Decay, Decay parameters of useful Isotopes
Lecture Slides
Time and Geology
Terms to Know
angular unconformity
conformity
contact
cross-cutting relationship
daughter isotope
disconformity
formation
half-life
inclusion
isotope
lateral continuity
nonconformity
original horizontality
parent isotope
radiometric dating
superposition
uniformitarianism
Mass Wasting
Concepts
Classification of Mass Wasting
Controlling Factors on Mass Wasting
Types of Mass Wasting
Mass Wasting
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Table 9.1 Types of Mass Wasting
Figure 9.1Flow, Slide, and Fall
Table 9.2 Summary of Controls of Mass Wasting
Figure 9.4 Indicators of Creep
Figure 9.7 Earthflow
Figure 9.10 Solifluction
Figure 9.14 Two examples of rockfall
Figure 9.18 A hillside becomes vulnerable to mass wasting due to ...
Figure 9.19 Use of drains to prevent mass wasting
Figure 9.20 Safe and Unsafe roadcuts
Lab Manual
Lecture Slides
Mass Wasting
Terms to Know
angle of repose
creep
debris
debris avalanche
debris fall
debris flow
debris slide
earthflow
fall
flow
landslide
mass wasting
mudflow
rock avalanche
rock fall
rockslide
rotational slide
shear force
shear strength
slide
solifluction
talus
translational slide
Streams and Floods
Concepts
The Hydrologic Cycle
Drainage
Runoff
Drainage Basins
Stream Order
Drainage Patterns
Stream Valley Development
Stream Function
Controls on Stream Function
Erosion and Erosional Features
Transportation
Depositional Landforms
Streams and Floods
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
10.1 The Hydrologic Cycle
10.2 Longitudinal and cross sections of a typical stream
10.4 Drainage basin of the Mississippi
10.5 Drainage patterns and underlying rock
10.6 Regions of maximum velocity in a stream
10.7 Hjulstrom's Diagram
10.8 Channel shape and roughness influence stream velocity
10.9 Channel width variations caused by rock type and ...
10.14 Stream bed load and suspended load
10.27 Natural levee deposition during a flood
10.30 Shape of delta and sediment supply
10.31 Alluvial Fan
10.40 Base level is the lowest level of downcutting
10.41 Ungraded and Graded streams
10.42 Lateral Erosion
10.45 Development of Stream Terraces
10.47 Incised Meanders
10.48 Development of a Superposed Stream
Streams and Floods
Helpful Figures and Tables
Lab Manual
Figure 11.1 General features of stream drainage basins, streams, and ...
Figure 11.2 Stream drainage patterns
Figure 11.10 map of the Rio Grande in 1992
Lecture
Streams and Floods
Helpful Figures and Tables
Streams and Floods
Helpful Figures and Tables
Streams and Floods
Terms to Know
alluvial fan
bar
base level
bed load
braided stream
capacity
channel flow
competence
delta
dendritic pattern
discharge
dissolved load
distributary
divide
downcutting
drainage basin
drainage pattern
drainage system
flood plain
fluvial landform
graded stream
hydrologic cycle
incised meander
lateral erosion
meander
meander cutoff
natural levee
oxbow lake
point bar
radial pattern
rectangular pattern
saltation
sheet flow
stream
stream channel
stream gradient
stream order
stream terrace
trellis pattern
tributary
Ground Water
Concepts
The Water Table
Movement of Ground Water
Hydraulic Head, Gradient, and Darcy's Law
Ground Water Velocity
Darcy's Law
Springs and Streams
Aquifers and Wells
Effects of Ground Water
Ground Water Contamination
Ground Water
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Page 259 World Distribution of Water
Table 11.1 Porosity and Permeability of Sediments and Rocks
Figure 11.2 Perched water table
Box 11.1 - Figure 1 Hydraulic Head
Box 11.1 - Figure 2 Ground Water Flow
Figure 11.3 Movement of Ground Water below a sloping water table
Figure 11.4 Good wells and bad wells
Figure 11.6 Confined and Unconfined aquifers; Ground water flow
Figure 11.7 Seasonal variations in unconfined aquifers
Figure 11.8 Pumping well and cone of depression
Figure 11.12 Formation of springs
Figure 11.13 Gaining and losing streams
Figure 11.15 Map view of contaminant plume
Figure 11.17 Rock type and distance control contamination of ...
Figure 11.18 Ground water problems caused/aggravated by wells
Figure 11.23 Karst topography
Lab Manual
Lecture Slides
Ground Water
Helpful Figures and Tables
Ground Water
Terms to Know
aquifer
artesian well
cave
cone of depression
confined aquifer
discharge zone
drawdown
gaining stream
ground water
hydraulic gradient
hydraulic head
losing stream
perched water table
permeability
porosity
recharge
recharge area (zone)
saturated zone
sinkhole
spring
unconfined aquifer
vadose zone
water table
well
Glaciers and Glaciation
Concepts
Distribution of Glaciers
Types of Glaciers
Formation and Growth of Glaciers
Evolution of Snow to Ice
Glacial Movement
Erosional Glacial Landforms
Depositional Glacial Landforms
Glacial Water Bodies
Past Glaciation
Glaciers and Glaciation
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Figure 12.3 Cross section of ice sheet
Figure 12.4 Conversion of snow to glacier ice
Figure 12.6 A valley glacier as it would appear at end of melt season
Figure 12.8 Movement of a glacier
Figure 12.9 Crevasses
Figure 12.12 Plucking and Abrasion
Figure 12.14 Landscape evolution
Figure 12.25 Moraines associated with valley glaciers
Figure 12.28 Depositional features in front of a receding ice sheet
Figure 12.33 Maximum glaciation during Pleistocene Ice Age
Lab Manual
Figure 13.1 Active mountain glaciation in a hypothetical region
Figure 13.2 Erosional features remain after total ablation
Figure 13.3 Erosional features produced by mountain or continental ...
Figure 13.4 Depositional features produced by mountain or ...
Figure 13.5 Water bodies of glaciated regions
Figure 13.6 Continental glaciation produces these characteristic ...
Figure 13.7 Continental glaciation leaves behind these characteristic ...
Lecture Slides
Glaciers and Glaciation
Terms to Know
ablation
abrasion
advancing glacier
alpine glaciation
arete
basal sliding
cirque
continental glaciation
crevasse
drumlin
end (terminal) moraine
equilibrium line
erratic
esker
finger lake
firn
glacier
ground moraine
hanging valley
head
horn
iceberg
ice cap
ice sheet
kame
kettle
lateral moraine
loess
marginal lake
medial moraine
moraine
outwash
paternoster lake
plucking
receding glacier
rock flour
tarn
terminus
theory of glacial ages
till
valley glacier
zone of ablation
zone of accumulation
Deserts and Wind Action
Concepts
Deserts
Characteristics
Distribution
Atmospheric Circulation
Rain Shadow
Cool Ocean Currents
Distance From Ocean
Desert Landforms
Wind Action
Erosion
Transportation
Deposition
Glaciers and Glaciation
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Figure 13.3 World distribution of nonpolar deserts
Figure 13.4 Rain shadow
Figure 13.7 Characteristic landforms of the Colorado Plateau
Figure 13.8 Monoclines, hogbacks and cuestas
Figure 13.10 Two possible geometries of faults that control the ...
Figure 13.11 Development of landforms associated with Basin and ...
Figure 13.17 Blowouts
Figure 13.22 Sand dune formation and movement
Lab Manual
Figure 14.1 Eolian erosion, transport, and deposition
Figure 14.3 Common types of sand dunes
Figure 14.7 Typical landforms of arid mountainous deserts in regions
...
Lecture
Slides
Deserts and Wind Action
Terms to Know
bajada
barchan
blowout
butte
deflation
desert
flash flood
gravel pavement
Hadley Cell
loess
longitudinal dune
mesa
parabolic dune
pediment
plateau
playa
playa lake
rain shadow
sand dune
slip face
transverse dune
ventifact
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
Concepts
Waves
Types
Evolution
Motion
Properties
Breakers
Nearshore Circulation
Wave Refraction
Longshore Currents
Rip Currents
The Beach
Coastal Sediment Budget
Nearshore Sediment Dynamics
Landforms
Human Interference
Coastal Types and Landforms
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
Helpful Figures and Tables
Textbook
Figure 14.3 Orbital motion of water waves
Figure 14.4 Deep water wave begins to "feel" the bottom
Figure 14.5 Wave refraction
Figure 14.6 Rip currents
Figure 14.8 Seasonal cycle of a beach
Figure 14.9 Longshore drift of sand
Figure 14.11 Formation of a tombolo
Figure 14.12 Man-made coastal structures
Figure 14.13 Wave refraction on an irregular coast
Figure 14.14 Coastal straightening
Lab Manual
Figure 15.1 Emergent coastline features
Figure 15.2 Submergent coastline features
Figure 15.3 Coastal structures
Lecture Slides
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
Terms to Know
barrier island
baymouth bar
beach
beach face
berm
breaker
coast
coastal straightening
crest
estuary
fetch
fjord
groin
headland
jetty
longshore current
longshore drift
marine terrace
overwash fan
plunging waves
primary coast
rip current
rip current feeder
rip current head
rip current neck
ripple
sea arch
sea cliff
secondary coast
spilling waves
spit
stack
surf
surging waves
swash
swell
tombolo
trough (of wave)
wave
wave-cut platform
wave amplitude
wave base
wave frequency
wave height
wave length
wave period
wave refraction
wave train
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