Deer resistant plants - University of Minnesota Extension

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Deer resistant plants
Written by:
Cathy LeVahn
Anoka County Master Gardener
Minnesota Tree Care Advisor
Compiled by Gilda Banfield
Olmsted County Master Gardener
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Alkaline Soil
Annuals 3 Feet or More
Annual Vines That Grow Quickly
Boulevard Gardens: Perennials
Boulevard Gardens: Small Trees
Broadleaf Evergreens for Zone 4
Clay Soil
Cold Tolerant Annuals
Compacted Sites: Trees
Crevice Plants
Deer Resistant Plants
Dry Soil: Annual Foliage Plants
Dry Soil: Shade or Under Trees
Dry Soil: Trees
Fragrant Annuals and Perennials
Fragrant Shrubs
Indoor Low Light
Knot Gardens
Lakeshore Native Plants
Long-Blooming Perennials
Rain Garden Plants
River Banks and Canoe Public Access Areas
Self-Seeding Perennials
Septic Mound Plants
Shade: Shrubs
Shade: Small Trees
Shade: Tall Perennials
Steep Slopes
Trees that Produce Minimal Litter
Under a Black Walnut Tree
www.countrymilegardens.com
atthecreation.com/
Deer Facts
• 1,113,000
– Estimated Statewide Deer Population
(2007)
• Hungry deer will eat almost any kind of
plant
• More likely to damage younger, tender
plants
• Don’t mix plants they prefer among
those they dislike
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
www.kansasbirdingtrails.com
Cathy LeVahn
www.donnan.com
ag.utah.gov
ag.utah.gov
www.donnan.com
Possible Solutions
• Fencing
– Wire, not wood
• Angled away from yard
– Psychological and physical barrier
• 6 feet high and 30° angle
– Electric fencing somewhat successful
• Not 100% successful
www.afencecompany.com
www.dcs.gov.uk
Possible Solutions
• Repellents
– Contact Repellents
• Applied to plants
• Tastes bad
– Area Repellents
• Foul odor repels
deer
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Connecticut study tested 6 repellents, none more than 50%
effective
blog.oregonlive.com
Possible Solutions
A Connecticut study tested 6 repellents, none
more than 50% effective
Repellent
Effectiveness
Deer Away (rotten egg)
46%
Hinder (ammonium soaps)
43%
Thiram (bitter fungicide)
43%
Mesh bags of human hair
34%
Magic Circle (bone tar oil)
18%
Miller Hot Sauce
15%
www.whitetailsolutionsllc.com
Possible Solutions
No scientific evidence but worth a try:
•Deodorant soap tied to tree branches
•Egg mixture sprayed on foliage
–2 eggs
–1 to 2 cups cold water
–Mix in high speed blender
–Add to gallon of water and spray on foliage
–Does not wash off foliage easily, reapply 2-3 times
per season
Possible Solutions
• Noise Alarms
– Using sound not effective
– More bothersome to homeowner than deer
– Deer become accustomed to noise
Deer Resistant Plants
• Deer damage to ornamental plants is
very frustrating.
• You can minimize the damage they can
do by avoiding plants they prefer.
• Use plants that deer avoid due to
– Toxicity
– Fragrance
– Texture
Yarrow (Achillea spp.)
• Height: 18”- 3’
• Drought tolerant
• Prefers full sun
Bailey Nurseries
www.bellwebs.com
Ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum)
• Height: 6-24”
• Beautiful blue, pink or white flowers
• Easy to grow
Ornamental onion (Allium spp.)
• Height: 1-4’
• Many forms and species
• Tough and may self-seed
Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
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Height: 1-3’
Short-lived
Self-seeds
Showy flowers
Bailey Nurseries
Wax begonia (Begonia semperflorens & hybrids)
• Height: 8”-2’
• Dependable flowers
• Shade and drought tolerant
Purdue University
Flickr.com
Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
• Height: 2-3’
• Native
• Attracts birds and
butterflies
Bailey Nurseries
Heliotrope (Heliotropium arborescens)
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Height: 18-24”
Cherry-pie fragrance
Tough
Long lasting
flowers
Ottawa Horticulture Society
Sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima)
• Height: 4-12”
• Edging and container plant
• Self-seeds
Cape Town Garden
Daffodil (Narcissus spp.)
• Height: 6-24”
• Poisonous to squirrels and deer
• Can be planted under trees
Peony (Paeonia lactiflora)
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Height: 2-3’
Long lasting perennial
May need staking
Prefers full sun
Bailey Nurseries
Poppy (Papaver spp.)
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Height: 1-3’
Showy flowers
Can self-seed
Many species and cultivars
Geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum)
• Height: 12-18”
• Cemetery plant
• Tough and drought resistant
All American Selections
Russian sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia)
• Height: 3-4’
• Drought tolerant
• Prefers full sun
Blue salvia (Salvia farinacea)
• Height: 24-30”
• Attracts butterflies
and hummingbirds
All American Selections
Dusty Miller (Senecio cineraria)
• Height: 6-15”
• Silver-grey or white foliage
• Drought and cold tolerant
Dave’s garden
Lamb’s ear (stachys byzantina)
• Height: 6-15”
• Silver foliage good for edging and front of border
• Drought tolerant
Marigold (tagetes spp.)
• Height: 6”-3’
• Long-lasting yellow, gold and bicolor flowers
• Easy to grow from seed
University of Minnesota
All American Selection
Bleeding Heart (dicentra)
• Height: 8”-4’
• Bloom Color: Pink, White, Red-pink
• Light shade or full shade
Butterfly Weed (Asclepias)
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Height: 12”-24”
Bloom Color: Orange, yellow, white, red
Prefers sandy soil or of poor quality
Undisturbed, it develops a large taproot
aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu
Gayfeather (Liatris spicata)
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Height: 2-4’
Flower Color: Purple, white
Exposure: Sun
Soil: Well-drained
Bloom Time: June - October
Plume poppy (Macleaya cordata)
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Height: 6-8’
Flower Color: Creamy white
Exposure: Sun, partial sun or light shade
Soil: Well drained, moist
Bloom Time: July - September
Speedwell (Veronica spicata)
• Height: 1-2’
• Flower Color: Purple, white,
pink
• Exposure: Sun, partial sun/
light shade
• Soil: Well-drained
• Bloom Time:
• June – September
Zinnia (zinnia)
• Height: 6-36”
• Flower Color: Red, yellow, gold, green, purple, orange,
pink, white, maroon, brown
• Exposure: Sun
• Easy to start from seed
www.math.iupui.edu
homepage.mac.com
schwehr.org
www.mdwfp.com
Trees
Shrubs and
Vines
atthecreation.com
www.ca.uky.edu
www.whitetailsolutionsllc.com
ag.utah.gov
Japanese barberry (Barberis thunbergii)
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Height: 2-5’
Thorny
Many cultivars
Red berries and red fall color
May be invasive
Bailey Nurseries
Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
• Height: to 60’
• Woody native vine
• Attractive berries
Bailey Nurseries
Red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)
• Height: 6-12’
• Attractive red stems
• Cultivars vary in height and form
Bailey Nurseries
University of Minnesota
Forsythia (Forsythia ‘Northern Sun’)
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Height: 8-10’
Fast growing
Very hardy flower buds
Tolerates a wide variety of soils
Bailey Nurseries
Chinese Juniper (Juniperus chinensis)
• Height: 2-6’
• Many cultivars and forms
• Good for full sun
dansjunipers.tripod.com/chinensis.htm
Mugo pine (Pinus mugo)
• Height: 12-20’
• Tolerant of alkaline, compacted or salty soils
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)
• Height: 25-50’
• Evergreen with attractive bark
Michigan State University
Rhododendron & Azalea (Rhododentron spp.)
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Height: 3-6’
Evergreen and deciduous species
Showy flowers
‘Northern Lights’ series are the
hardiest
University of Minnesota
Lilac (Syringa vulgarus)
• Height: 8-15’
• Showy fragrant flowers in spring
• Tolerant of many sites
Bailey Nurseries
Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)
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Height: 12-18’
Native shrubs
Fruits turn from red to blue
Shade tolerant
Bailey Nurseries
Potentilla (potentilla)
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Height: 1-4’
Extremely winter hardy
Blooms extended period, early summer through fall
Full sun
Bailey Nurseries
Not so cute anymore, is he?
www.boston.com
References:
• University of Minnesota Extension
http://www.extension.umn.edu
• Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/index.html
Thank You
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