First Aid Booklet Slide Show ()

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Cuts and Scrapes
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Control bleeding using firm pressure
and universal precautions
Clean thoroughly with soap and water
Dress with gauze or a Band-aid
Have a cut evaluated for stitches if:
 longer
than 1/4-1/2 inch
 fat or tissue protruding from cut
 on the face
 gaping open
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Bleeding
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Always wear gloves (carry them with you)
Apply direct, firm pressure, using gauze or a
clean cloth
Elevate the area, if possible (above the
heart)
Hold firm pressure for 7-10 minutes, without
stopping to “check”
After bleeding controlled, clean the wound
and apply a dressing
Arterial & Uncontrolled
Bleeding
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Arterial blood is bright red, and spurts
with each heartbeat--Blood from a
vein will be darker red, and flow
steadily
If bleeding is arterial, or is
uncontrolled after 10 minutes of firm
pressure, have someone call 911
If anything is protruding from the
wound, leave it, and tape a dressing
to hold it in place
Nosebleeds
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Very common in children
Have the student lean forward, not back
Apply firm pressure--7-10 minutes
Pinch the nostrils not bridge of nose
Afterwards, do not let the child blow!
Prolonged or recurrent nosebleeds
should be reported to parents for
possible medical attention
Fractures, Sprains and Dislocations
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A fracture is a broken bone
A sprain is an injury to the ligaments
around a joint
A dislocation is when a bone slips out of
it’s socket.
It takes an X-ray to tell the difference
Fractures, Sprains and Dislocations
 Remember “PRICE”
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P is for Protect: Splint in position found
R is for Rest: Avoid further movement
I is for Ice: To minimize swelling and
pain
C is for Compress: Ace bandage, check
often
E is for Elevate, above the heart
Head Injuries
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For minor head injuries
 Rest
and Ice
 Back to class
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Recheck in clinic in 1-2 hours for:
 Increasing
headache pain
 Vision problems
 Memory loss
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Head Injuries
Symptoms that would indicate a more
severe head injury, requiring medical
attention are:
 Loss of consciousness
 Clear fluid from nose or ear
 Vision or speech problems, unequal
pupils
 Inability to arouse from sleep
 Vomiting 3 or more times
 Unsteady gait, neck pain
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Neck and Spinal Injuries
 Always suspect a neck or spinal
injury if the child:
 Has fallen more than 10 ft
 Has a bad head injury
 Does not get up quickly
 Tells you he has neck or back
pain
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Neck and Spinal Injuries
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Do not move him if you suspect spinal
injury
 Someone else should call 911 while you
stay with the child
 If he vomits, roll him to one side, “like a
log”, keeping his neck and back straight
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Allergic Reactions

Insect sting, food, medication, latex
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Remember the Three R’s:
 Recognize
 React
symptoms
quickly
 Review what caused the reaction,
and how well the emergency plan
worked
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Allergic Reactions
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Signs of a severe reaction are:
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Intense itching, hives
 Facial swelling, especially eyes and lips
 Cough, hoarseness, or difficulty
swallowing
 Wheezing, more severe respiratory
difficulty
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Check emergency plan, follow directions
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Give epi-pen immediately, if ordered
 Call 911, observe for breathing problems
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Shock
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Shock can result from a severe injury,
illness, or infection
 The child may be disoriented, confused,
or unconscious
 Skin will be pale and clammy
 Shock results when the body sends
blood and oxygen to the most vital
organs
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Shock
Call 911
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Have child lie down and elevate or prop legs
12 inches or more
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Keep the child warm and calm
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Observe for further problems with breathing or circulation
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Do not give child anything to eat or drink
Burns
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First aid is cold water
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Helps control pain, stop burning
process
 Do not use ice
 Dress with a clean bandage
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Leave blisters intact
If the burn is on the hand or face, or is
larger than the palm of the hand:
Call parents to seek further medical
attention
Seizures
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A seizure is an episode of abnormal
electrical activity in the brain
 May vary from staring spells, to
movement of one extremity, to a
generalized or grand mal seizure
 First aid for a child having a seizure is to
prevent injury and observe for
complications. A seizure management
plan should be completed and on file
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Seizures
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It is helpful to check the time, so you can tell
parents or EMS how long it lasted
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Do not put anything in the child’s mouth, but do
speak calmly to him
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When the seizure is over, the child will usually
be sleepy. Turn him to one side
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Call 911 if it is the first seizure or lasts longer
than 5 minutes
Eye Injuries
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Foreign Bodies or Splashes
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Flush with large amounts of water for
15-20 minutes
 Cover the eye with a gauze dressing
 Don’t let the child rub, Call parents
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For a penetrating eye injury
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Keep student lying flat
 Cover with a metal shield, or “cup”
 Call 911
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Heat Emergencies
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Heat Cramps
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Heat Exhaustion: Headache, nausea, faintness, skin
pale and clammy
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Move student to a cool place
Give fluids (water)
May try a gentle massage of cramped area
Move to a cool place, lie down
Give sips of water (4 oz. every 15 minutes)
Apply cool, wet cloths, fan
Notify parents
Heat Emergencies
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Heat Stroke is a medical emergency: skin
is red, hot, dry; high fever; disoriented; may
have seizures, unconsciousness
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Transport to air-conditioned room
 Call 911, notify parents
 Sponge with water and apply cold
packs
 Do not give fever reducers
 Avoid exposure to extreme
temperatures for several days
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Dental Injuries
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Broken or knocked out teeth
Notify parents, child should see dentist or
ER within 1 hour if possible
If bleeding, apply pressure
If tooth is knocked out, find tooth, place in
a cup of milk or “Save a Tooth”, send with
child
Do not rub or clean tooth
Rinse mouth with cool water
Bee Stings and Insect Bites
•Remove Stinger by flicking it with a driver’s
license or credit card
•Apply ice or cold compress
•Use Epi-Pen if you have one for this child, call 911
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intense itching
trouble breathing
hives
wheezing
 hoarseness
 paleness
 difficulty
swallowing
 facial swelling
Tick Removal
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Remove the tick by pulling straight out with
tweezers or your fingers
Wash with soap and water
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Inform parent or caregiver
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This is NOT an emergency and does not need to
be treated immediately
Provide follow-up information that includes
seeing a doctor if the child develops a rash,
fever, or headache and possibly joint pain a
week to 30 days after a tick bite
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Splinter Removal
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Use Clean tweezers
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If you see the object sticking out of the skin
grasp and gently pull out the same direction it
went in
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No digging or doing anything invasive
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Wash with soap and water
Bumps and Bruises
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Apply ice for 20 minutes – use a thin layer of
cloth or paper towel between ice and skin. Ice
for 10 mins then remove for 10 mins.
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Elevate the area if possible
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Do not break or open blood blisters
Sunburn
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Avoid direct sun between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.
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Recommend students bring sunscreen from
home to outdoor events
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Treat sunburn with cool compress
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Encourage extra fluids
Georgia Poison Center
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When to call them:
 For
any ingestion of a non-food item
 For a chemical splash or burn
 For an animal bite
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And the numbers are:
 404.616.9000
 1.800.282.5846
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