Egypt Nassers Rise

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THINGS I NEED TO COLLECT FROM YOU MONDAY:
• 1. Creation of Israel
• 2. 1948 War
• 3. 1948 Long Term and Short Term Causes Essay
• 4. Keep all your MidEast Portfolio Papers nearby…
EGYPT: NASSER’S RISE TO POWER
Population Density of Egypt
• Late 1700s French presence in Egypt
• 1860s Suez Canal built by French, Egypt is
economically tied to Europe now
• 1875 Egypt is forced to sell its shares in the canal to
Britain
• 1882 Britain fights Egypt for control in a few battles,
takes control (height of European imperialism in Africa)
• 1914 (eve of WWI) Britain makes itself official
“protectorate” of Egypt
• (all along, Egypt still has a Sultan)
EARLY TIMELINE
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
• 1919 a new leader emerged, Sa’ad Zaghlul and his
Wafd Party
• Z was highborn peasant, college educated as a
lawyer in France, became a judge in Egypt, then
married the Prime Minister’s daughter
• 1919 Paris Peace Conference—Zaghlul wanted to
go but Britain said no—brief exile to Malta—but the
• 1919 Egyptian Revolution happened—people of all
social classes protested Z’s exile, saying “Egypt for
Egyptians”—self-determination, Wilson’s baby
EARLY TIMELINE
• 1919 Zaghloul and Wafd buddies are allowed to
attend PPC, but no one in Europe cares
• 1919 US government officially recognizes the
British protectorate of Egypt, ignores Zaghlul
(See Document.) (full text)
• 1922 Egypt is released from British protectorate, a
free country…
• But Britain remains in control of Suez Canal,
Sudan, and foreign relations
• Sultan Faud changed his title to King of Egypt
EARLY TIMELINE
• 1923 Egypt held elections, Zaghlul and Wafd party
gained much political power
• Through 1936, Egyptian power triangle:
• 1. British: protective of regional interests (Suez,
proximity to Palestine, access to Asia)
• 2. Wafd Party: really popular among all walks of
Egyptian life
• 3. King Faud: still held a lot of real power
• This time period saw a resurgence of Arab
nationalism and culture
EARLY TIMELINE
• Reasons:
• King Faud died (succeeded by young, inept
son)
• Mussolini invaded Ethiopia/Abyssinia
• Treaty: Britain has to remove all troops except
what is necessary to protect the Suez Canal and
the country in case of war
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN TREATY 1936
• 1939 Egypt declared neutrality in WWII
• Britain as close influence was Allied Power
• 1940 Italy invaded Libya, then Egypt
• (remember the North Africa Campaign?)
• 1942 British required the King to find a new leader
from the Wafd party (seen as more reliable, less
likely to disobey the British)
• Political suicide for the Wafd… cooperating with
the British
• Called the 4th of February Incident
WWII
• Three Factors:
• 1. Suez Canal: 10,000 British troops stationed to
protect it, always a sore point for Egyptian
nationalism, especially now
• 2. Economic Situation: .4% of the pop. Owned
35% of the land (rich politicians…) and 95%
owned another 35%... Economy based on food
production & cotton—war seriously disrupted it
• 3. 1948 War loss: convinced Egyptians they had
incompetent leadership
POSTWAR TENSION & CHANGE
• 1. Muslim Brothers formed: a Pan-Islamic group
wanting to return to Islamic values, uniting Arabs as
Muslims against foreigners
• 2. Free Officers: formed after the 1948 war, wanting
to overthrow the monarchy as well as end
imperialism
• 1951, Wafd government ended Anglo-Egyptian
treaty, but the British refused to negotiate.
• Early 1952, Cairo riots—demonstrators burned
buildings, British soldiers in Suez Canal zone killed
protesters… that was the end.
OPPOSITION & REVOLUTION
• July 1952 Free Officers seized communications
controls and replaced the King’s government with
the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC)
• RCC ruled for a transitional time, Egypt was
declared a republic but
• political parties were banned,
• old constitutions revoked
• Anyone in politics from 46-52 couldn’t now
• Mohammad Naghib became President
• Gamal Abdel Nasser became VP… but
disagreements led Naghib to quit by 1954.
REVOLUTION & NASSER’S START
REVIEW QUESTIONS
• 1. Along what physical feature do most Egyptians
live?
• 2. What manmade feature made Egypt
economically tied to Britain and France?
• 3. What was Britain’s official title over Egypt in
1914?
• 4. Who was the leader that represented Egypt’s
interests at the Paris Peace Conference?
• 5. What was Zaghlul’s political party called?
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