THINGS I NEED TO COLLECT FROM YOU MONDAY: • 1. Creation of Israel • 2. 1948 War • 3. 1948 Long Term and Short Term Causes Essay • 4. Keep all your MidEast Portfolio Papers nearby… EGYPT: NASSER’S RISE TO POWER Population Density of Egypt • Late 1700s French presence in Egypt • 1860s Suez Canal built by French, Egypt is economically tied to Europe now • 1875 Egypt is forced to sell its shares in the canal to Britain • 1882 Britain fights Egypt for control in a few battles, takes control (height of European imperialism in Africa) • 1914 (eve of WWI) Britain makes itself official “protectorate” of Egypt • (all along, Egypt still has a Sultan) EARLY TIMELINE Mediterranean Sea Red Sea • 1919 a new leader emerged, Sa’ad Zaghlul and his Wafd Party • Z was highborn peasant, college educated as a lawyer in France, became a judge in Egypt, then married the Prime Minister’s daughter • 1919 Paris Peace Conference—Zaghlul wanted to go but Britain said no—brief exile to Malta—but the • 1919 Egyptian Revolution happened—people of all social classes protested Z’s exile, saying “Egypt for Egyptians”—self-determination, Wilson’s baby EARLY TIMELINE • 1919 Zaghloul and Wafd buddies are allowed to attend PPC, but no one in Europe cares • 1919 US government officially recognizes the British protectorate of Egypt, ignores Zaghlul (See Document.) (full text) • 1922 Egypt is released from British protectorate, a free country… • But Britain remains in control of Suez Canal, Sudan, and foreign relations • Sultan Faud changed his title to King of Egypt EARLY TIMELINE • 1923 Egypt held elections, Zaghlul and Wafd party gained much political power • Through 1936, Egyptian power triangle: • 1. British: protective of regional interests (Suez, proximity to Palestine, access to Asia) • 2. Wafd Party: really popular among all walks of Egyptian life • 3. King Faud: still held a lot of real power • This time period saw a resurgence of Arab nationalism and culture EARLY TIMELINE • Reasons: • King Faud died (succeeded by young, inept son) • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia/Abyssinia • Treaty: Britain has to remove all troops except what is necessary to protect the Suez Canal and the country in case of war ANGLO-EGYPTIAN TREATY 1936 • 1939 Egypt declared neutrality in WWII • Britain as close influence was Allied Power • 1940 Italy invaded Libya, then Egypt • (remember the North Africa Campaign?) • 1942 British required the King to find a new leader from the Wafd party (seen as more reliable, less likely to disobey the British) • Political suicide for the Wafd… cooperating with the British • Called the 4th of February Incident WWII • Three Factors: • 1. Suez Canal: 10,000 British troops stationed to protect it, always a sore point for Egyptian nationalism, especially now • 2. Economic Situation: .4% of the pop. Owned 35% of the land (rich politicians…) and 95% owned another 35%... Economy based on food production & cotton—war seriously disrupted it • 3. 1948 War loss: convinced Egyptians they had incompetent leadership POSTWAR TENSION & CHANGE • 1. Muslim Brothers formed: a Pan-Islamic group wanting to return to Islamic values, uniting Arabs as Muslims against foreigners • 2. Free Officers: formed after the 1948 war, wanting to overthrow the monarchy as well as end imperialism • 1951, Wafd government ended Anglo-Egyptian treaty, but the British refused to negotiate. • Early 1952, Cairo riots—demonstrators burned buildings, British soldiers in Suez Canal zone killed protesters… that was the end. OPPOSITION & REVOLUTION • July 1952 Free Officers seized communications controls and replaced the King’s government with the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) • RCC ruled for a transitional time, Egypt was declared a republic but • political parties were banned, • old constitutions revoked • Anyone in politics from 46-52 couldn’t now • Mohammad Naghib became President • Gamal Abdel Nasser became VP… but disagreements led Naghib to quit by 1954. REVOLUTION & NASSER’S START REVIEW QUESTIONS • 1. Along what physical feature do most Egyptians live? • 2. What manmade feature made Egypt economically tied to Britain and France? • 3. What was Britain’s official title over Egypt in 1914? • 4. Who was the leader that represented Egypt’s interests at the Paris Peace Conference? • 5. What was Zaghlul’s political party called?