THE HISTORY OF HARD FLOOR CARE FROM DIRT TO MODERN SYSTEMS WE WILL COVER: Types of floor surfaces The evolution of floor coatings The timeline of developments Types of equipment used to maintain hard floors Through the Years Prehistoric Mid-evil 19th Century 20th Century The st 21 Century New technology DIRT! Since the beginning of time STONE! Earliest discovery was 5000 years B.C. MOSAIC DATES TO 3000 B.C. Next Was…. Ceramic Tile Somewhere around 1500 B.C. Then came….. MARBLE PORCELAIN FOLLOWED NEXT Around 500 B.C. TERRAZZO WAS NEXT! DATES FROM THE VENETIANS SLATE!! Widely used for roofs but also for floors WOOD!!! Let’s not forget WOOD Wood Floors Been used since the Med-Evil times Most widely used form of flooring by the colonists There are varying degrees of hardness Pine is the softest Oak is amongst the hardest The First Coatings were made by The Butcher polish Company Founded in 1880 Their first product was S.C. Johnson Founded in 1886 One of the largest manufacturer’s of cleaning products today Their first product was: WOODEN PARQUET FLOORING Modern coatings weren’t developed until many decades later! The Evolution of Floor Tile 1925 Asphalt Tile 1954 Vinyl Asbestos Tile 1976-77 Vinyl Composition Tile What’s Next? The Evolution of Coatings 1946 The first synthetic coating 1968 Johnson Wax Introduces COMPLETE 1975 Johnson Wax Introduces SHOWPLACE 1985 Butcher Polish Intoduces IRONSTONE The Inventor of Modern Synthetic Coatings Richard “Dick” Gable Further Developments In the mid 1960’s, S.C. Johnson invented: COMPLETE Further Developments Drawback Styrene “yellows” in a relatively short period of time. Cleaning Equipment Buffers Wet Vacuums Auto Scrubbers Polishers Buffers (AKA) Floor Machines Introduced in the 1930’s The motor turned at 150 RPM’s Speed upgraded to 175 RPM’s around 1950 Two-speed machines were introduced by Advance in 1974 300 RPM’s (high-speed) intoduced in 1975 Wet Vacuums First appeared in the 1960’s Auto-Scrubbers Invented by American Lincoln Clarke soon followed Advance introduced their early scrubbers in 1970 By 1974 the Auto-Scrubber was saving labor throughout the U.S.A. Polishers In 1975 the first polisher was the NSS propane buffer – you needed a mechanic with each machine to tighten the screws! In 1977 NSS developed the first (burnisher) as we know them today – 1050 RPM’s In 1979 Pullman-Holt had 1080 RPM’s THE RACE WAS ON!! Who will win the RPM contest? THE RACE WAS ON!! NSS was up to 1500 RPM’s with the Charger (still the only burnisher with the patented, tilted deck to run on less than 12 amps) 2000 RPM machines were in every manufacturer’s line by 1980. 3000 RPM came in the mid 1980’s 2500 RPM is still available THE RACE WAS ON!! 3000 RPM’s tuRned out to be (too fast) for the floor finishes Ultra High Speed Floor Finishes (1.) not “yellow” anymore (2.) keep from powdering at the tremendous speeds generated by the burnishing equipment SOLIDS – SOLIDS - SOLIDS The Earliest finishes had 14% solids (the Carnuba wax) Complete was (about 16%) and set up very hard 18% floor finishes hit the market in the late 1970’s 20% was introduced in 1982 Solids – solids - solids S.C. Johnson, Spartan, Butcher and a few other manufacturers thought 25% would work well Some manufacturers backed down to 22% Still others went to 30 – 35% only to find they didn’t work Finally, around the turn of the 21st century 30% finishes were refined and worked! Solids – solids - solids Is more better?? Floor pads Floor pads were developed in the early 1970’s Does anyone remember having to buff with steel wool pads??? Bassine Brushes??? THAT’S ALL WE HAD!!! Floor Pads ETC of Henderson, NC introduced The “GORILLA” pad in 1981 Gorilla Pad Beautiful shine it creates You can tell when a “Gorilla” pad is being used by what other phenomenon? Floor Pads 3M Introduced the “Eraser” pad in the late 1990’s Modern Tile Asphalt Tile This tile was colorful Red Green Brown Blue 9” x 9” Asphalt Tile Though this tile is durable it is also quite rigid and therefore, subject to cracking Vinyl Asbestos Tile (VAT) Developed in 1954. Either 9” x 9” or 12” x 12” By 1970 it was all 12” x 12” Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT) (VCT) was developed in the mid 1970’s MAINTENANCE!! MAINTENANCE!! MAINTENANCE!! Normal Procedures Strip off the factory coating when new Rinse and apply either a sealer or combination sealer/floor finish Clean regularly Buff to maintain the shine When the floor finish shows wear either scrub and apply more finish or strip and recoat STRIP – APPLY FLOOR FINISH, CLEAN, BUFF REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT Inorganic Coating Introduced in 2005 A paradigm Shift. Benefits The coating’s high pH remains No microbial activity Never needs stripping Increases the lummins Resists scratching Other coatings Epoxy Urethane REVIEW - Substrates Concrete Ceramic Tile Porcelain Tile Asphalt Tile Vinyl Tile Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT) Review - Coatings Natural base – Carnuba Wax Synthetic finishes Inorganic coating Epoxy urethane Review - equipment Floor Machines Wet/Dry Vacuums High Speed Burnishers (Propane and Electric) Automatic Scrubbers Programs The variety of substrates, coatings and maintenance equipment available offer the institution many options when creating the right program for their facility. Labor Depending on the program selected labor can account for between 80% to 90% of the total custodial budget.