NCF - Training Spot

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Natural Cover Fires
view from the west
View looking west at the Head of the Fire
TOPICS
- Wildland PPE
- Apparatus
- Wildland Tools
- Topography and Fuels
- Scene Size-Up
- Fire Attack
- Safety
WILDLAND PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
WILDLAND PPE
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Lightweight
Less restrictive
Bunker Gear Issues
WILDLAND PPE
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Able to withstand radiant heat
Constructed of Nomex and Kevlar
Will burn in direct contact with fire
WILDLAND PPE

Your wildland PPE
should consist of:
 Protective Boots
 Wildland Pants
 Wildland Coat
 Gloves
 Helmet
 Eye Protection
WILDLAND PPE

Wildland Boots should be:
 Leather
 Eight inches high
 Comfortable for the terrain

Wildland Boots should not:
 Be made of synthetic material
 Have steel toes
WILDLAND TOOLS
Hand Tools
Shovels
 Axes
 Pulaski
 Fire Swatter
(Flapper)
 Rakes

Mechanical Tools
 Back
Pack
Pumps
 Indian Packs
 Drip Torch
Power Tools
 Chain
Saw
 Blower
Other Tools
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Chains
Flashlights
Forestry Hose
Nozzles
Flares
Thermal Imaging
Camera
Tool Care
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Clean all tools and hose lines after each use
Check for cracks and splits
Use Linn seed oil on wooden handles
Keep tools sharp
Refill all water, foam, and fuel tanks after use
Apparatus
BRUSH TRUCKS
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Light Weight
Four Wheel Drive
Designed for Wildland
incidents
Mobile to remote
locations
Foam capabilities
Engines
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Additional tools
Additional water
Drafting Capabilities
Structural Protection
Foam Capabilities
Stage on Roadways
Tankers
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Additional Water
Additional Tools
Structural Protection
Stage on Roadways
General Rules
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Keep warning lights on
Command apparatus/post should be easily
identifiable
Never ride on the outside of a moving
apparatus
Driver’s must maintain visual contact with
crew working outside of the apparatus
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Stage ALL apparatus on the roadways
Be mindful bridge weights on rural roads
Keep doors shut and windows up in apparatus
First Priority

Life Safety then structural protection
Staging
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Watch for overhead power lines
Watch for damages trees/limbs
Stay clear of LPG or fuel storage tanks
Tactically position apparatus for structural
protection
Stage apparatus facing escape routes
FUELS, WEATHER,
AND TERMS
Fuels

Fuel
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The most common fuels consumed during a
natural cover fire:

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Any flammable or combustible substance
available for fire consumption
Grass, brush, trees, and crops
Other fuels encountered:

Structures, vehicles, farm equipment, Hazmat,
etc.
Fuels
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Surface Fuels
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Aerial Fuels
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Fuels found on the ground
Fuels on tops of trees and brush
Ladder Fuels
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Fuels connecting surface fuels to aerial fuels
Fuels
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Light Fuels
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Medium Fuels
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Short grass or light brush
Brush up to 6 feet high
Heavy Fuels
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Thick/dense fuels over 6 feet high
Weather
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-
Wind direction and velocity
Low humidity
High temperatures
Lots of sunshine
Low moisture
Time of day
Day of week
Terms
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Origin – Area where the fire started
Head – Part of the fire with the greatest rate
of speed
Heel – Opposite end of the head. Also
referred to as the “rear”
Unburned – Area of Unburned fuel outside or
adjacent to the involved area


Black – area that the fire has consumed
Flanks – The sides of the fire, roughly parallel
to the main direction of the fire spread.
Scene Size-Up
Windshield Size-Up
Establish Command
 Ask yourself these questions:
 What is burning? Fuel type/load
 How much area is currently involved?
How much has burned already?

Windshield Size-Up (continued)
 How
fast is the fire moving?
 Are there any exposure concerns?
 Do I need additional resources?
 Am I staged in a safe area?
Fire Attack
Direct Attack

Hierarchy of tool selection of a crew for
“typical” light to medium fuel natural cover
fires:
Blower
 Rake
 Water/Foam

Direct Attack
 Establish
a safe anchor point
prior to starting fire attack
 Start attack by the heel or a
natural barrier
Direct Attack
 Work
in tandem to prevent
fire from reigniting
 Give ongoing reports to
command
Direct Attack - Crew
Crew Leader
- Obtains portable radio, rake, and two flares
Crew Member
- Obtains the blower and its extension tube
Additional Crew Member
- Obtains an Indian pack/pump pack
Brush Truck Operations
Crew Leader
- Walks ahead of truck as a spotter, obtains
portable
Crew Member #1
- Starts pump, drives truck watching other
crew members
Crew member #2
- Deploys crosslay, walks along truck
extinguishing flames
Indirect Attack
 Controlling
the fire by
constructing a control line
along natural barriers or by
removing/burning unburned
fuel in the fire’s path
Natural Barriers
 Creeks
 Rivers
 Streams
 Dirt
 Rock
areas
Manmade Barriers
 Roadways
 Parking
 Ditches
lots
Back Burning
 Method
involves
burning a fire
line ahead of the
fire to eliminate
fuels for the fire
to consume
Indirect Attack - Crew
Crew Leader
- Obtains portable, drip
torch, and two flares
Crew Member
- Obtains blower and
extension tube or a
water pack
Additional Crew Member
- obtains a rake
After the Fire
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Double check for hot spots
Check back in with the IC – entire crew
Rehab tools
Refill apparatus
Terminate command
Safety
Safety
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Solid Incident Command
Accountability
Communications
Escape Routes
Safety Zones
Safety
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In the majority of NCF incidents, there are no
lives at risk until the first firefighter arrives
Prepare for the worst case scenario
Place experienced personnel in crew leader
and incident commander roles
Safety

Special Considerations
 Fire moving up hills
 Power lines
 Fences
 Above ground fuel
tanks
 Falling Timber/Limbs
 Urban Interface
Safety Concerns
Be mindful of
change in wind
pattern
 Watch for spot
fires over your line
 Unclear
assignment
 Crew fatigue

Reminders
Hydrate and rehab
as needed
 Park on roadways
 Do not ride
outside of a
moving apparatus

Stay with your
crew
 Stay focused
 Call for additional
recourses early

Summary
Priorities
 Life
Safety
 Incident Stabilization
 Property Conservation
SCENARIOS
Windshield View
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