Yom Kippur War

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Yom Kippur War
1973
Adriana Lilla
Annika Roberts
Steven Soo
Mitchell Linegar
Jin Mei McMahon
Maps
Timeline Part 1
•
Oct. 6, 1973 – Egypt and Syria launch a coordinated attack on Israeli positions
along the Suez Canal and in the Golan Heights. Egyptian troops cross the
canal, secure a beachhead in the eastern portion of the Sinai Desert, breaching
Israel’s Bar-Lev line. Syrian troops defeat Israeli forces on Mt. Hermon in
northern Israel.
•
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Oct. 7, 1973 – Syria captures most of the southern portion of the Golan Heights.
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Oct. 9, 1973 – Against orders, reserve Maj. Gen. Ariel Sharon launches a
counterattack against Egyptian forces in the canal area. Sharon’s actions lead to
moves for his dismissal.
•
Oct. 9, 1973 – U.S. Jewish leader Max Fisher urges President Richard Nixon in a
meeting at the White House to “please send the Israelis what they need.” That
night, Nixon tells Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that “all your aircraft and
tank losses will be replaced.” * Oct. 10, 1973 – Washington authorizes an airlift
of military supplies to Israel after the Soviet Union sends additional arms to
Egypt. Israel successfully attacks Egyptian troops that had moved out of range
of their protective surface- to-air-missile umbrella. Israel has recaptured most
Oct. 8, 1973 – Israel launches its first counterattack against Egypt, which is
unsuccessful. The Soviet Union supplies additional arms to Syria and Egypt.
Timeline Part 2
•
Oct. 11, 1973 – Israel attacks Syria from its positions on the Golan Heights. The
Soviet Union’s ambassador to the United States, Anatoly Dobrynin, tells U.S.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger that Soviet airborne forces are on the alert to
defend Damascus. Kissinger warns Dobrynin that if the Soviet forces sent troops to
the Middle East, the United States would as well.
•
Oct. 12-13, 1973 – The United States sends additional arms shipments to Israel.
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Oct. 14, 1973 – In one of the largest tank-to-tank battles ever fought, Israel is
estimated to have lost 10 tanks, the Egyptians anywhere from 250 to 300. Iraq and
Jordan send troops to the Golan, in response to appeals for assistance from Syria.
•
Oct. 16, 1973 – The first Israeli troops cross the Suez Canal. Egyptian President
Anwar Sadat asks the Soviet Union to convene the United Nations and seek a
cease-fire.
•
Oct. 17, 1973 – Ten Arab member-nations of the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries announce they will cut oil production until Israel withdraws
from Arab territory captured during the 1967 Six-Day War and the rights of the
Palestinian people were ``restored.” The embargo was not completely lifted
Timeline Part 3
•
Oct. 21, 1973 – Israeli forces, led by reserve Maj. Gen. Avraham Adan, encircle the
Egyptian Third Army. Forces led by Sharon take up positions less than 40 miles from Cairo.
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Oct. 22, 1973 – Israel overtakes all Syrian positions on Mt. Hermon. The United
Nations adopts Security Council Resolution 338, which calls for an immediate ceasefire, the implementation of Security Resolution 242, which called for an exchange of
land for peace and negotiations between the “parties concerned” aimed at
establishing a “just and durable peace.’’
•
Oct. 23, 1973 –Fighting continues despite the cease-fire. The United Nations Security
Council passes Resolution 339, which restated the group’s call an immediate ceasefire and called for the dispatch of U.N. observers to the area. * Oct. 24, 1973– A
second cease-fire is put into effect, but fighting continues between Egypt and Israel.
As a result, the Soviet Union threatens the United States that it will send troops to
support the Egyptians. The United States puts its nuclear forces on a higher alert.
The Soviet Union withdraws its threat the following day.
•
Oct. 28, 1973– Israeli and Egyptian military leaders meet to implement the cease-fire
at Kilometer 101 marker in the Sinai. It is the first meeting between military
Arab/Palestinian Points of
Contention
• Sadat and the rest of the Arab world were upset
about their losing streak against the Israelis.
• The end objective was not so much to have a
proper war but to gain some momentum in order to
force Israelis into negotiations over land.
• The Palestinians remained refugees
Jewish Points of
Contention
•
•Where the Arabs wanted to negotiate for their lost
lands, Israel appeared unwilling to negotiate,
believing that the new borders were beneficial to its
national security.
•
•Appeared to want de facto annexation of occupied
territories; populated them with Jewish settlers.
•
•Wanted to improve international image, and so
played the victim. Even after it learned of the
impending Arab attack, they decided against a
Key Players: Anwar
Sadat ● Egypt
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•
•
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Succeeded Nasser
Goal: "de-Nasserise" Egypt
Disillusioned with the Soviets
Felt that he had to go to war in
order to persuade Israel to make peace on terms
acceptable to Arabs. Intended the war to be no more than
a military operation to show Egypt's strength. Wanted to
reclaim the Sinai and the Suez Canal.
Key Players
Henry Kissinger ● USA
•
•
•
•
Sought a cease-fire, backed by the Soviet Union
Oct. 20th: drafted cease-fire with
Moscow that was accepted two days later.
Shuttle diplomacy.
The beginning of warming relations
between America and Egypt.
Key Players:
America
•
•
4 diplomatic goals:
o
negotiate quick end to the war
o
maintain support of Israel
o
preserve Arab relations (because of oil)
o
prevent Soviet Union from entering war
'Operation Nickel Grass' was an airlift operation to aid Israel in
the war. Resulted in the Arab oil embargo on the United States,
but allowed Israel to turn the tide of the war.
Key Players: Soviet
Union
•
•
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Gave political support to Arabs.
Soviet Union resupplied Arab states with ammunition and
weapons.
When America did the same, increased supply to tanks and
planes.
Threatened troop intervention in order to aid the Egyptian
Third Army; there is various debate about whether or not they
would have actually sent in troops, because of the increasing
potential for a superpower confrontation.
Collaborated with America for cease-fire in order to protect
Key Battles
Key Battles: The
Sinai
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Egyptians prepared assault across the canal and deployed five divisions totaling
100,000 soldiers, 1,350 tanks and 2,000 guns and heavy mortars for the
onslaught. Facing them were 450 soldiers of the Jerusalem Brigade.
Israeli armored forces launched counterattacks from October 6 to 8, but they
were inadequately supported.
Egyptians used Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) to negate Israeli air-force;
however, this dependency restricted Egyptian troop movements.
Israel built up supplies and counterattacked Egypt (Operation Gazelle) on
October 15. They managed to cross the Suez Canal to the north of the Great
Bitter Lake.
During intense fighting, the IDF focused on reclaiming the area around and
along the Suez Canal up until the cease-fire.
Key Battles
Key Battles: Golan
Heights
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Given priority by the Israeli High Command.
Famous for tank battles - 800 Syrian tanks to 180 Israeli tanks.
Fighting was intense and extremely violent. The Syrians attacked with precision,
Israel only just holding them back.
By October 9, only six Israeli tanks remained in action. 15 repaired tanks whose
crews included injured men arrived to support it. The Syrians thought Israeli
reinforcements were arriving and retreated, exhausted from three days of fighting.
The arriving Israeli reserve forces were able to contain the Syrian advance.
Beginning October 8, the Israelis began pushing the Syrians back towards the prewar ceasefire lines.
Israel then continued to advance into Syria, pushing back Syrian troops almost to
Damascus.
Outcomes of the
War
Israel:
Arab Countries:
•Military Victory
•Political Victory
•Tactical gains
•Oil weapon
(powerfully positioned
•Dignity restored
troops)
•8500 deaths, 20000
•Aura of invincibility
wounded
gone
General:
•3000 deaths, 8000
•Israelis
woundedand Arabs met at a peace conference in
Geneva in December 1973, their first face to face
meeting in 25 years
•Kissinger’s role was in equilibrium to both sides
Sources
•
•http://www.jta.org/news/article/1998/09/2
0/4829/TimelineofYomKipp
•
•http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to19
91_ykwar_result.php
•
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•The Arab Israeli Conflict by T.G. Fraser
•Wikipedia
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