outer planets

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Planets of the Solar system
Section 4: The Outer Planets
Preview
• Key Ideas
• The Outer Planets
• Gas Giants
• Jupiter
• Saturn
• Uranus
• Neptune
• Objects Beyond Neptune
• Exoplanets
• Light Year
Section 4
Planets of the Solar system
Section 4
The Outer Planets
• The four planets farthest from the sun, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, and Neptune, are called the outer planets and
are separated from the inner planets by a ring of debris
called the asteroid belt.
• gas giant a planet that has a deep massive atmosphere,
such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
• Usually found past the orbit of Neptune is Pluto. At one
time, Pluto was considered the most distant planet. But
in 2006, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet.
Planets of the Solar system
Section 4
Gas Giants
• Gas giants are larger and more massive than terrestrial
planets, but much less dense.
• Unlike terrestrial planets, gas giants did not lose their
original gases during formation.
• Each gas giant has a thick atmosphere made mostly of
hydrogen and helium gases.
• Each planet probably has a core made of rock and
metals.
• All four gas giants have ring systems that are made of
dust and icy debris that orbit the planets.
Planets of the Solar system
Section 4
Objects Beyond Neptune
• Pluto, now defined as a dwarf planet, orbits the sun in an
unusually elongated and tilted ellipse.
• It spends most of its orbital period beyond Neptune’s
orbit, but is sometimes closer to the sun than Neptune.
• Scientists think Pluto is made up of frozen methane,
rock, and ice, with an average temperature of –235 °C.
Pluto has extensive methane icecaps and a very thin
nitrogen atmosphere.
• Pluto has three moons, one of which, named Charon,
has a diameter of more than half that of Pluto.
Planets of the Solar system
Section 4
Objects Beyond Neptune, continued
• In recent years, scientists have discovered hundreds of
objects in our solar system beyond Neptune’s orbit. These
objects are called trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and exist in
the Kuiper Belt.
• Kuiper Belt a region of the solar system that is just beyond
the orbit of Neptune and that contains dwarf planets and other
small bodies made mostly of ice
• Eris, Makemake, and Haumea are trans-neptunian dwarf
planets or plutoids, so called because they resemble Pluto.
Other large TNOs have not been classified as such, but may
eventually be considered as meeting the definition.
Planets of the Solar system
Section 4
Exoplanets
• Exoplanets are planetlike bodies that orbit stars other
than Earth’s sun.
• Exoplanets cannot yet be directly observed with
telescopes or satellites. Most exoplanets can be
detected only because their gravity tugs on stars that
they orbit.
• Most of the exoplanets that have been identified are
larger than Uranus, but a few have been discovered that
are closer to Earth in mass.
Planets of the Solar system
Light Year
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Section 4
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