1146-49 Reign of Sayf al-Din (at Mosul)
1146-74 Reign of Nur al-Din
Bernard of Clairvaux
Second Crusade
Louis VII of France (r. 1137-80)
Conrad III of Germany (r. 1138-52)
June 1148 Crusaders decide to attack Damascus
1153 Baldwin III (r. 1143-63) captures
1154 Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus
1160s Struggle for Fatimid Egypt
Jan 1169 Shirkuh becomes vizier of Egypt
Mar 1169 Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin,
r. 1169-93) becomes vizier of Egypt
1171 Death of last Fatimid caliph. Saladin
abolishes Fatimid caliphate
1174 Death of Nur al-Din
1174-86 Saladin takes control of Syria
Map Link: Saladin’s Conquests:
4th July 1187 Saladin destroys Crusaders’ field
army at the Horns of Hattin
Guy de Lusignan (r. 1186-90)
Reynald de Chatillon
1187-90 Saladin takes most of coast including
Jerusalem (2nd Oct 1187)
Map Link: The Battle of Hattin, 1187:
Map Link: The Levant in 1190:
Third Crusade
Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1152-90)
Philip II Augustus (r. 1180-1223)
Richard I Lionheart (r. 1189-99)
June 1190 Frederick I drowns in R. Saleph
in Armenia
Summer 1191 Richard and Philip arrive at
Acre, which is besieged by Guy de
July 1191 Acre surrenders to the Crusaders.
Philip soon returns home
1191-92 Richard I and Saladin fight each
other to a standstill
Sept 1192 Peace agreement made. Richard
leaves Levant, ends up imprisoned in
4th March 1193 Death of Saladin
Map Link: The Levant in 1197:
1190 Death of Princess Sybilla and Guy de
Lusignan’s claim to the throne of
Jerusalem. Guy becomes King of
April 1192 Death of Conrad de Montferrat,
second husband of Princess Isabella.
Isabella marries Henry of Champagne
(r. 1192-97)
Interactions between Crusaders and Muslims:
Friendly relations
Trade in goods and ideas
Religious conflicts with:
Eastern Christians
Issues regarding tolerance between Muslims,
Crusaders (Catholics), Eastern
Christians, Jews
Social classes in the Crusader states:
Subject peoples
Clergy, headed by Patriarchs of Antioch
and Jerusalem (Acre)
Early 13th c. Carmelites officially
recognised by papacy
c. 1118 Foundation of the Order of the
Temple (Templars)
1129 Templars receive Templar Rule
By 1290 Templars hold property all over
10th c. Foundation of Order of the Hospital
of St John of Jerusalem
mid-12th c. Militarisation of the order,
becomes Order of the Knights of
St John (Hospitallers)
Early 1100s Foundation of German hospice in
Jerusalem, destroyed 1187
c. 1190 Foundation of German hospital at Acre
1199 Pope approves Order of St Mary of the
Teutons (Teutonic Knights)
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Usama ibn Murshid ibn ‘Ali ibn Munqidh
From Shayzar in N. Syria
Lived in Shayzar until c. 1131, then served
Zangi for a few years before returning
home. Exiled from Shayzar again in 1138
Murshid (d. 1137)
Map Link: The Levant c. 1140:
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Joined court in Damascus, but became
embroiled in politics and had to leave
in 1144.
Went to Egypt. Became embroiled in politics
and had to leave in 1154.
Joined court of Nur al-Din in Damascus
Usama ibn Munqidh (4/7/1095-16/11/1188)
Retired to Hisn Kayfa in c. 1164. In 1174
allowed son to persuade him to join
court of Saladin. Usama and Saladin
fell out two years later
Best known to historians for Kitab al-I‘tibar
(Book of Learning by Example)
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