Chapter 26A

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Chapter 26: Clouds of War
Mrs. Hauber
US History
The Rise of Nationalism
Rise of Dictators
Hitler
Mussolini
Stalin
Austrian
Fascist
Hated Authority
artist
Control Media
Communist
WWI
March on Rome
“Man of Steel”
Jailed
Il Duce
Mein Kampf
Old Roman
Empire
Helped Lenin in
revolution
Came to Power
when Lenin died
NAZI Party
Intelligent
Great Purge
Video Clip on the Causes of
WWII
Causes of WWII
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MAIN
Anti-Communism
Policy of Appeasement
Germany’s occupation of Poland
Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and China
Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia
Stalin’s Non-Aggression Pact
Resentment over the Treaty of
Versailles
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Huge reparations bill to Germany
Loss of territories (Alsace-Lorraine)
Demilitarization
Italy was promised land, but was
ignored
Development of the Axis
Powers
• Rome-Berlin Axis—Italy and
Germany agree to help fascist forces
in the Spanish Civil War.
• Anti-COM intern Pact– Japan and
Germany agree to help fight
Communism
(continued)
• NAZI-Soviet Pact—(Non Aggression
Pact)—Russia and Germany agree to
Neutrality
– Germany can take Western Poland
unopposed
– Russia can take Eastern Poland,
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Prior to WWII
Hitler's March
– Remilitarizes the Rhineland
– Annexes Austria unopposed
– Germany takes Sudetenland
– Munich Pact—(Policy of
Appeasement)—Britain and France give
into Hitler’s demands of the
Sudetenland to ensure peace.
Hitler's March (Continued)
– 6 months later Germany takes the rest
of Czechoslovakia
– Germany invades Poland on
September 1, 1939 (the start of WWII)
Map of Czechoslovakia and
Poland
Mussolini’s March
• Italy invades Ethiopia in Africa
• Wants to rebuild Italy into the Old Roman Empire
• Forms pact with Germany
Japan’s March
• Invades Manchuria in 1931
– Japan lacks good resources
– Violates Kellogg-Briand
pact
– US does not risk war
• Invades China in 1937
– Declares New World order in Asia
– Declares “Open-Door” Policy Closed
Japanese Invasion of
Manchuria
Stalin’s March
• Russia fought Finland in a war for
one year after pact with Germany
• Finns fought bravely and the US
admired their bravery.
• Finland lost a portion of their land to
Russia
• Russia took over Baltic Region and
Eastern Poland
Japanese-American Relations
• US did not risk war when Japan
invaded Manchuria and China
• Panay—US gunboat sunk on the
Yangtze River in China by the
Japanese.
• Japan apologized and paid
for damages (didn’t see our
flag on ship)
The Good Neighbor Policy
• FDR’s policy that stresses the respect for
other countries in the world by being a
“good neighbor”
• Originally meant for the whole world
• Became our policy toward Latin America
• In 1943, US gave up its right to intervene
(stated in the Platt Amendment)
• First test was in Mexico—US
formed a compromise.
Quarantine Speech
• FDR called for isolation of the
aggressor nations
• Foreshadows his getting ready for
US involvement in the war
American Isolationism
Neutrality Acts
• 1935 & 1936—prohibited the sale of
any weapons to warring nations
• 1939—Cash & Carry—exception to
the neutrality acts whereby warring
nations could buy weapons if they
paid cash and shipped them from our
shores.
Section 2: The Battlefield is
Everywhere
• After Germany’s invasion of Poland,
there was no fighting for 6 months
despite the fact that Britain and
France declared war on Germany
• Phony War—nickname given by the
press for this time period
• Only exception was
Soviet Union’s attack
on Finland
WWII Begins
A New Warfare
• Blitzkrieg—Hitler’s strategy that
overwhelms the enemy with planes,
trucks, and tanks. “lightning war”
Hitler’s March after Sept 1st
• Order in which other countries were
invaded:
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Poland
Denmark and Norway
Netherlands
Belgium
Luxemburg
France (penetrated the Maginot Line)
• Operation Dynamo—300,000 British and
French forces evacuated across the
English Channel
Operation Dynamo
Air Power
• Billy Mitchell—WWI ace that believed
air power was the key to victory in
the next war.
– In 1921, he demonstrated how using an
airplane to drop bombs could sink a
battleship
Air Power (continued)
• Charles Lindbergh—In 1927 he made
a famous non-stop flight from NY to
Paris
• B-17—long-range bomber nicknamed
the flying fortress
• Admiral William Moffett-- designed
the first aircraft carrier and was in
charge of the air force
US Prepares for War
• Plan to turn out 50,000 planes
• Create a two-ocean navy
• FDR tried to slowly change the
nation’s opinion
Battle of Britain
• Winston Churchill—New Prime
Minister that warned that after the
surrender of France, Britain would be
next.
• Mostly fought in the air
• Germany launched daylight
raids against ports and
airfields
The London Blitz
Battle of Britain (continued)
• ULTRA—Germany’s secret codes
that Britain intercepted
• Sea Lion—Hitler’s planned invasion
across the English channel
• Hitler postponed this invasion
conceding defeat.
Election of 1940
• Wendell Wilkie—Republican candidate
who was against the New Deal but agreed
with FDR in preparing for war.
• First peacetime draft ever. (For Defense)—
FDR promised “not to send your boys to
any foreign wars”
• FDR was the 1st President to be elected 3
times.
Helping Great Britain
• Neutrality Act of 1939 (Cash and Carry)—
allowed aid to Britain, France, and China
• Destroyers for Bases Deal—US gave
Britain 50 old destroyers in exchange for 8
naval bases
• Lend-Lease Act—leased war supplies to
Britain because they could not afford
them.
Undeclared Naval War
• FDR extends defensive perimeter
halfway across the Atlantic Ocean
• FDR orders US ships to shoot any
German ship within this perimeter on
sight.
Atlantic Charter
• FDR and Churchill meet secretly on a
ship outside of Newfoundland
• Atlantic Charter—update of Wilson’s
14 points where they came up with a
set of “common principles”
• FDR spoke of Four Freedoms:
speech, religion, want and fear.
Warm Up
• Explain the undeclared naval war
going on in the Atlantic Ocean
between the US and Germany.
Section 3: War Comes to the
US
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Invasion of Russia
Submarine Warfare
Trouble in the Pacific
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Declaration of War
Hitler Invades Russia
• Violates NAZI-Soviet Pact (Operation
Barbarossa)
• Greatest Blunder because of the
climate and vastness of territory
• Nazis suffered from frostbite and
frozen oil in the motors of their
tanks.
Germany Increases Submarine
Warfare
• US was convoying British merchant
ships
• Three destroyers were hit by
German submarines
– USS Greer—actually stalking a German
submarine; was 1st US ship to be hit.
– USS Kearney—
12 Americans were killed
– Rueben James—Over 100 killed
• Undeclared Naval War
Trouble in the Pacific
• Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere—Japanese domination of the
Far East
• Burma Road—allied supply route to
China
• Japan wanted US to cut off aid to
China
Japanese Advancement
Trouble in the Pacific
(continued)
• General Hidecki Tojo—a more warlike General in Japan that came to
power
• Magic—intelligence the US received
from breaking Japan’s codes.
Planning the Attack
Attack on Pearl Harbor
• US government was
involved with peace
talks with Japan
• Decoders knew Japan
was going to strike
but didn’t know where
• Dec. 7, 1941—greatest
military disaster in
America
• 2400 killed
Pearl Harbor
Declaration of War
• Dec 8, 1941—FDR gives his famous
“Day of Infamy Speech” to the
public.
• US declares war on Japan
• 3 days later, Germany and Italy
declare war on the US
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