Dairy Products PowerPoint

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Dairy Products
Foods I: Fundamentals
TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Milk
Cream
Cultured
Dairy Products
Frozen Dairy Products
Concentrated Dairy Products
Non-Dairy Products
Butter
Cheese
MILK
 Can
be plain or flavored
(chocolate, strawberry, etc.)
 Usually fortified with VITAMIN D

Meaning that it is added as a bonus!
 Raw
milk is straight from the cow
(untreated)

It is generally then processed in the
following ways before it is sent to
stores:
 Pasteurized: Process of heating to
destroy harmful bacteria
 Homogenized: Process of
agitating milk to help distribute
the fat throughout so it’s uniform
in texture (not clumpy)
TYPES OF MILK

UHT Milk – milk that is treated a super high temperatures to kill bacteria


Whole Milk


Contains roughly 2% milkfat
1% Milk


Contains more than 3.25% milkfat
2% Milk


Can be stored for up to 6 months without refrigeration
Contains roughly 1% milkfat
Skim (Fat-Free) Milk

Contains less than .5% milkfat
CREAM

Cream is a more concentrated form of milk


It comes in the following varieties:




Once a cow is milked, the solids float to top (milkfat) and
they are skimmed off and this becomes cream!
Heavy (whipping) Cream
 Higher percentage of fat (85% cream, 15% milk)
Light (whipping) Cream
 Lower percentage of fat (70% cream, 30% milk)
Half & Half
 Even less fat (half 50% cream, half 50% milk)
To Make Whipped Cream:


Use cold bowl and whip cream until frothy… to sweeten,
gradually add sugar little by litte
DO NOT OVERBEAT, or it will deflate and turn into butter!
CULTURED
 Made
from cultured, or specially
grown bacteria
 Usually thick in texture & tangy in
flavor
 Examples of cultured dairy products
include:



Yogurt
 This is the dairy product with the
lowest amt of fat
 Can be substituted for sour cream to
reduce the fat in a recipe
Sour Cream
Buttermilk
FROZEN
 Dairy
products that have been prepared and
stored at very low temperatures



ICE CREAM
 Made from milk, cream, sugar and flavoring
 Generally has about 6-8 grams of fat
 REDUCED FAT has about 4-5 grams of fat
 LOWFAT has less than 3 grams of fat
 NONFAT has less than 0.5 grams of fat
SHERBERT
 Made from milk, sugar and fruit juice
FROZEN YOGURT
 Made from cultured dairy product, sugar &
flavoring
CONCENTRATED


Dairy products that have had the water or liquids
removed to increase the density
Examples include:



EVAPORATED MILK
 Has some water removed
 Can be reconstituted and used as fresh milk
 Available in cans
SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK
 Has water removed and sweetener added
 Used most commonly in baking
 Cannot replace fresh milk or evaporated milk
 Available in cans
NONFAT DRY MILK POWER
 Used by chefs because it does not spoil and it costs
less than fresh milk
 Can be reconstituted and used as fresh milk
 Comes powdered in packets (boxes)… think hot cocoa
NON-DAIRY
 These
are used a substitutes for dairy
products but offer similar results
 Convenient because they don’t spoil as
easily and can be consumed by lactose
intolerant people
 Examples include:




Soy Milk
 Great source of complete protein!
Rice Milk
Non-dairy creamer
Margarine
 Used hydrogenated veggie oils in place of
animal fats… meaning trans fat (chemically
taking unsaturated and making them supersaturated!)
BUTTER





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Made by churning cream (either sweetened cream or sour cream) into
butter
It is usually then colored artificially and either salted or left unsalted and
packaged then sold
Whipped butter just incorporates more air into the churning process
resulting in a less dense end product
It can be frozen for a longer shelf-life but should ideally be refrigerated
Can spoil if left out (resulting in BITTER BUTTER… remember Betty?!)
Offers saturated fat (animal product)
CHEESE


Created by allowing milk (un-homogenized) separate and skimming off the
milkfat solids (CURDS) from the top, leaving only the liquid protein portion
(WHEY)
TYPES:




UNRIPENED  sold immediately, not allowed to age
 Ex. Cottage cheese, cream cheese, ricotta cheese
 Better for cooking because they’re more blendable
RIPENED  curds are packaged and aged (sometimes for years)
 Ex. Cheddar, Muenster, Provolone, Swiss…
 The softer the cheese, the better it is for you… while all cheeses have
saturated fats, harder cheeses have higher levels
PROCESSED  chemically made or altered
 Ex. Velveeta, cheese sauces, imitation cheese
 These tend to create really smooth, creamy cheeses & cheese sauces
COOKING

Overcooking causes cheese to become tough and rubbery
COOKING

Dairy products are used commonly in baked goods,
white sauces, soups, puddings, soufflés and frozen
desserts… BUT BEWARE:


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SCUM FORMATION
 Solid layer of skin forms on top of milk when heating
 Can cause pressure to build up under scum and result
in it boiling over
 Prevented by stirring constantly or covering pan
SCORCHING
 Burning of a milk-based product as a result of
caramelization of the sugars in milk (lactose) which
leave product looking and tasting funny
 Avoid this by using a double-broiler and keeping the
heat low
CURDLING
 This is when the acids, tannins, enzymes and proteins
in milk coagulate and clump together
 It can be prevented by using fresh milk on a low heat
and stirring frequently
COOKING (White Sauces)

White sauces are simply starch-thickened (think FLOUR) milkbased products

There are 4 categories of white sauces:
 ROUX – made from a paste of flour and fat (usually butter) and
then milk is added and thickened (by boiling & reducing) to
create sauce
 SLURRY – made without the use of butter and by substituting fatfree milk instead; mixture is beaten in blender until smooth and
then heated slowly
 BISQUE – base for cream soups that include shellfish; is generally
rich and thick, sometimes made with cream
 CHOWDER – base for cream soups that include veggies, meat,
poultry or fish, made by using unthickened milk

They come in 3 varieties:
 Thin - soups
 Medium – creamed veggies or meats, sauces
 Thick - souffles
NUTRITION

Dairy products offer a variety of crucial nutrients including:

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Vitamin D
 Fat-soluble vitamin, fortified in milk (added as bonuS!), also in SUN
 Prevents rickets!
Vitamin A
 helps eyesight, fat-soluble vitamin, prevents night-blindness
Calcium
 mineral that helps bones stay strong, prevents osteoporosis
Riboflavin
 vitamin b2, helps to build healthy skin, hair and eyes, also helps to metabolize
nutrients
Complete Protein
 come from animals, help body to grow and repair… become and stay strong
Saturated Fat
 come from animals, needed for insulation, to transport fat-soluble vit. (ADEK!)
Simple Carbohydrates
 Sugars in the form of lactose (only found in milk not so much in cream)
You should get up to 3 servings of dairy a day

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1 serving = 1 ounce cheese (4 small dice OR 1 slice)
1 serving = 1 cup milk, yogurt, ice cream
1 serving = ½ cup ricotta
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBPYopcoeqs
STORAGE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0UfS1bqscM&feature=related

Dairy is highly perishable


Should be used within 1 week of fresh sale date
Should be stored in tightly sealed containers,
away from light
 This is because light destroys riboflavin (Vit.
B2)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvppFMRy0ZE
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CHEESE STORAGE


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Cheese should be stored in the refrigerator but
may be frozen to prolong
Hard cheeses (and sharp) will give off their odor
to other foods in the fridge while softer cheese
will adopt the scents that are in the fridge (like
onions, garlic, etc.)
If a cheese becomes moldy, you should cut off
the mold within ½ inch and then it’s okay to eat
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FH
mXAb3G0ek&feature=related
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