Settlement Introduct.. - Abingdon School Study Site

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Settlement
• A settlement is a
place where people
live
• Most people live in
permanent
settlements
• Some people are
unfortunate to live in
temporary
settlements
Permanent or
Temporary Settlement?
Types of settlement
Site
Characteristics
Defensive
Difficult to attack e.g. hill-top or island
Hill-foot
Sheltered, with flat land for building and farming
Gap
Lower, more sheltered land between two hills
Wet point
Close to water in a dry area
Dry point
On higher, dry area close to wet land e.g.
marshes or flooding rivers
Route centre
Focus of routes (e.g. roads) from surrounding
area
Bridging point
Where bridges can be built over a river
Which type of
settlement?
Bridging Point
Route Centre
Defensive
Wet Point
Hill-foot
Dry Point
Gap site
Which type of
settlement?
•
•
•
•
•
Settlement 1 is a Gap site
because it is a lower and more
sheltered site between two
hills.
Settlement 2 is a wet-point
because it is close to water in
a dry area.
Settlement 3 is a dry-point
because it is a higher, drier
site above wetland.
Settlement 4 is a Route Centre
because it is a focus of routes
(roads and river) in this area.
Settlement 5 is a Hill-foot site
because it is is sheltered and
flat for building and farming.
Importance of Individual
Sites
• The importance of individual
sites changed over time.
• Which features do you think
were more important in
early times and which do
you think were more
important more recently?
Importance of Individual
Sites Years Ago
Feature
Reason
Good defence
Hard to attack, e.g. Hill top,
island
Close to water
For water and fish supplies
Close to woodland
For fuel, building materials and
food
On useful farmland
To provide food
Flat land
Makes building easier
Good communications
By road and river
Importance of Individual
Sites Now
Feature
Reason
Close to resources As materials for industry e.g. coal
Close to ports
To transport materials or goods
Faster
communication
As industry grew and developed e.g.
canals, railways and more recently,
motorways and airports.
For a) larger number of retired people
and b) hi-tech industries which wish to
be in attractive areas
Pleasant
environment
Food and water
supplies
Communications
Warkworth
Defence
Sea can be used
for fishing for food
Flat land is great
for farming, as
shown by the
pattern of fields
Trees are good
for hunting
animals
River means
enemies can
only attack from
1 side
Building houses
Trade
Sea can be used
for trade
River and roads
can be used for
communication
River stops
housing being
built to east and
west
River and roads
can be used for
trade
N
Castle defends
the south side
Flat land good for
building housing
Wet land not
ideal for building
houses
Settlement shapes
• The spacing of places is very different all
across the country
• In the countryside houses can be scattered
randomly with space between each house this is called dispersed
• Some settlements have grown along a road –
this is called linear
• Towns or villages may be compact, with
shops, offices, and houses all very close
together – this is called nucleated
Settlement Shapes
There are 3 basic shapes of rural settlements
Dispersed
Linear
Nucleated
Nucleated
Dispersed
Linear settlements
settlements
settlements
have
have
have
buildings
abuildings
defined
which
centre
scattered
arelike
about
stretched
awith
market
undeveloped
out
square
along or
a road,
land
crossroads
in-between
in a line
Settlement sizes
Hamlet
City
Village
Farm
Town
• An isolated settlement consisting of one house Farm
• A settlement of only a few houses and without a
church Hamlet
• A settlement with a few services, such as a church,
public house and a small shop Village
• A larger settlement with several shops, churches, a
senior school, supermarkets, a doctor, dentist, banks
and a small hospital Town
• A very large settlement with a large railway station,
shopping complex, cathedral, large hospital,
museum, university and office blocks City
What type of settlement
is this?
Village
Farm
Hamlet
City
Town
Middlesbrough and
Hartlepool Map
Pick 4 settlements (a town, village, hamlet and farm) on
the map and fill out the table below for each one:
Settlement Name
Whitby
Settlement Types
Town
Grid Reference
8911
Description
Nucleated settlement at the mouth of the River Esk
Advantages
Some areas are on top of the hill, so it is good
defensively. It is also next to a water supply and is a route
centre for the north-south road and the road from the
west.
Disadvantages
It cannot grow to the east because of the sea. Some
areas may flood.
Special features and Abbey, hospital, bus and railway stations, 5 churches
functions
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