Chapter 13 – Vertebrate Animals

Chapter 13 – Vertebrate
Vertebrate Animals w/Endoskeletons
Amphibians and Reptiles
Mammal’s Environments
13.1 Vertebrates have Endoskeletons
• Vertebrates = fish, frogs, snakes, birds, dogs,
humans, etc.
• Vertebrates = animals with backbones
• Also have: muscles, digestive, respiratory,
circulatory, and nervous system w/sensory
• Endoskeleton = internal support system that
grows along with the animal
– Greater flexibility & more ways to move than an
13.1 Vertebrae
• Vertebrates are named for specialized bones
called vertebrae which are located in the middle
of each animal’s central body segment (aka – a
backbone or spine)
• They support muscles and surround the spinal
cord which connects the animal’s brain to its
• Gills are located inside gill slits; gills filter O2
out of water and release CO2 into water
13.1 Fish
• Most vertebrates are fish which are the most
diverse group.
• Over 20,000 species of fish live in all aquatic
environments (salt/fresh)
• Have adaptations for water (gill slits & gills to
breathe; streamlined bodies, etc)
• Fish use muscles to move; have a swim bladder
for depth control; lateral line to sense vibrations.
• Able to taste, smell, hear, see, etc. underwater.
13.1 Types of FISH
1. Jawless Fish – lampreys, hagfish
 Simpler, slender, tubelike shape & digestive
system w/o stomach; teeth, but no jaw; can
bite, but not chew
2. Cartilaginous Fish – sharks, rays, skates
 Skeletons have no hard bone, mostly cartilage
(=flexible tissue)
3. Bony Fish – tuna, flounder, eel, etc.
 Largest fish group (96%); also have scales
(=overlapping bony structures); also - jaws,
teeth, fins
13.1 Reproduction &
• Most fish reproduce sexually
• In some species females “select” males as mates
• Female releases eggs; male swims over & releases
• Eggs are then left to hatch and develop on their own
in most species.
• Most fish eggs are surrounded by a soft case w/yolk
inside. Sometimes fish eat eggs/young
• Sometimes eggs develop inside the females body &
young are born live.
13.2 Amphibians & Reptiles
• Not on the final-exam!
13.3 Birds
• Not on the final exam
13.4 Mammals
• Not on the final exam
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