Basic Fire Attack - Dallas Fire Rescue Explorers

Basic Fire Attack
Dallas Fire Rescue Explorers
Basic Fire Attack
Overview of Fire Attack
Rescue Activities
Exposure Protection
Fire Confinement
Fire Extinguishment
Property Conservation
Coordinated Fire Attack
Immediate rescue attempted only in
extreme cases
 Aid rescue by placing protective streams
between victims and fire
 Water is essential to search & rescue
 Primary function during rescue is to
contain fire and keep it from spreading
Water Essential to Rescue
Separate fire from people closest to it
 Control interior stairways and corridors for
evacuating occupants and advancing
 Protect firefighters searching above and
around the fire
Exposure Protection
 Radiation
 Conduction
Travel of heat through motion of heated
 Hot air
 Heated gases
 Flying embers
Presents greatest fire fighting problem
 Smoke moves vertically and horizontallymushrooming
 A separate fire may ignite from hot air and
combustion products rising
Travel of heat through space
(electromagnetic waves)
Unaffected by wind
 Radiated evenly in all directions
 Will pass through water; stream must be
directed on surface
 Travel blocked by solid surfaces
 Can pass through glass
Travel of heat through a solid body
Through walls and floors by way of pipes,
metal girders and joists.
 May cause steel building and roof supports
to collapse.
Exposure Protection
Second only to rescue on list of basic
 Structures near fire building (exterior
exposures) and parts of fire building not
involved (interior exposures)
Exposure Protection
Exposure Coverage
 Interior Exposures
 Exterior Exposures
Exposure Coverage
Structure or materials closest to fire
covered first
When exposures are fairly close, most
vulnerable areas just above fire
Interior Exposures
Fire in concealed spaces, especially in
walls, ceilings and floors
 Vertical fire spread
 Horizontal fire spread
 Open interior spread
Exterior Exposures
Spacing between fire and exposure
 Building construction and materials
 Intensity and size of fire
 Location of fire
Fire Confinement Activities
Determine Fuel Load
 Establish Water Supply
 Select Adequate Hose Lines
 Basement Fires
Determine Fuel Load
Consists of interior surfaces, furnishings
and contents for interior fires
 Exterior surfaces when fire has extended
 Factors affecting fuel load
 Type of fuel involved
 Quantity of fuel
 Arrangement of fuel
Establish Water Supply
Hose lays can be accomplished with either
single or multiple lines, dependent upon
A. flow requirements
B. length of lay
C. size of hose
Select Adequate Hose Line
Consider limitations of various size hoses
Basement Fires
Use all openings for attack
 Requires full ventilation of basement and
first floor
 Stairways and other openings major
channels for vertical spread
 Know escape routes
 Communications
Fire Extinguishment Activities
Effective Stream Operation
 Back-Up Lines
 Advancing Lines
 Choosing Right Line
 More than One Line
Effective Stream Operation
Stay Low
 Position on same side of door
 Bleed line prior to entering
 Hit ceiling first if fire is rolling
 Sweep floor to cool contents
 Only open when fire is seen
 Direct at base if localized
Effective Stream Operations
Lower stream as advance is made to hit
main body of fire
 Shut down when main fire is knocked
 If is area is very hot and no fire found,
consider fire below you
 Attacking basements should be done with
straight stream
Effective Stream Operations
Fog should be restricted to unoccupied confined spaces
If building is ventilated, fog stream may be used; no
more than 30 degree angle
Large intense fire can be knocked down with larger lines
then make interior attack
Back-Up Lines
Used when initial lines cannot quickly
control a fire
 Held in readiness for use in place of attack
 Stretched when not obvious initial attack
put out fire
 Taken into building immediately after
initial attack lines
Back-Up Lines
Position close to initial
attack line
Have charged and ready
to use
May be used by RIT
operations if needed.
Back-up with same size
line of initial attack or
Ideally from different
Overhaul Activities
Examine Fire Scene
 What to Look For
 Where to Look
Examine Scene
Make certain no trace of fire remains; hot
 Leave structure in as safe a condition as
 Pre-inspection to make sure overhaul is
safe to do
 Personnel protective gear as needed and
determined by command
 Safe air
What To Look For
 Smoke
 Heat (Thermal Imaging Camera)
 Strong odors
 Charring
 Holes in floors
 Unstable building systems
Where To Look
Walls and ceilings
 Areas above fire
 Shafts
 Cabinets and compartments
 Window and door facings
 Soffits
 Balloon Frame Construction
Ventilation Defined
The process of
making openings in
building or exposure
to allow heat and
products of
combustion to leave
the building
Purpose of Ventilation
Reduces danger to trapped victims and
extends time for rescue
 Increases visibility
 Permits quicker entry and advancement
 Minimizes time it takes to find seat of fire
 Minimizes time it takes to find fire spread
 Decreases or stops fire spread
 Reduces chance of flashover or backdraft
Results of Ventilation
Depend on size and type of occupancy
 Depends on extent and location of fire
 Weather conditions
Result of Ventilation
Increases effectiveness of all operations
 Aids in saving lives
 Openings allow heat and combustion
products to exit by natural convection
 Windows can be opened; not
automatically broken
 PPV fans and smoke ejectors
 Hydraulic ventilation
Coordinated Fire Attack
Staffing single most
important part of
engine company
 Failure to consider
safety could be
negligent on part of
leadership of
Coordinated Fire Attack
At least two (2) firefighters enter IDLH
atmosphere and remain in visual or voice
contact at all times
 At least two (2) firefighters are located
outside the IDLH atmosphere for rescue
 Lack of additional personnel is not meant
to preclude firefighters from performing
emergency rescue activities before an
entire team has assembles
Coordinated Fire Attack
The sequence of thoughts and mental
activity carried out by the individual in
Begins upon receipt of
May be carried out many
times and by different
individuals during the
Responsibility initially lies
with officer in charge of
first arriving unit
As higher ranking officers
arrive, command can be
Properly done will result in safe, timely,
and efficient control of an emergency
 Care to be exercised to insure the total
problem is evaluated
 Must be dynamic, continuing throughout
all phases of the operation
Size-Up for Rescue
Officer of first arriving unit must first
consider the rescue problem and
determine if such conditions exist
 Risk/Benefit
Size-Up for Rescue
Problems found for rescue, all activities
undertaken should be directed towards relieving
the rescue problems
 All resources and activities should be directed
towards fixing rescue problem
 Nothing done by way of an attack effort should
interfere with or restrict rescue efforts
 Allocation for tools & equipment should favor
those involved in the rescue effort
Size-Up for Rescue
Ventilation, point of entry
and the placement of
hose lines should be
aimed toward protecting
those in immediate
danger and the crews
involved in rescue efforts
Possible that hose lines
will be used to support
rescue with no attempt to
extinguish or even
confine the fire
Size-Up for Rescue
Time is critical, each
minute of continued
exposure of victim
reduces chances for
safe rescue
 Life safety is first and
primary consideration
in all fireground
Size-Up for Confinement
First concern must be for adjacent
exposures to which fire can spread
 Attack must be toward cutting off route of
fire to uninvolved structures or exposures
 Attacking only main body of fire with no
thought to exposures could result in larger
Size-Up for Confinement
First extension is normally vertical
 Unable to spread vertically with result in
horizontally or crawling
 If both vertical and horizontal spread are
prohibited, fire will spread down
 Working knowledge of building
construction features will assist in
preventing spread of fire
Size-Up for Confinement
Fire will continue to burn unchecked
1. All fuel is consumed (we lost it)
2. Oxygen supply is depleted
3. Rate of heat release is reduced to a
point where the process is no
Size-Up for Extinguishment
Nature of fuel involved
 Quantity of fuel involved
 Physical arrangement of fuel involved
 Accessibility
 Rural or City Water
 Personnel
 Capabilities
Fuels Involved
Flammable liquids
 Combustible liquids
 Polycarbonate solids
 Ordinary combustibles
 Special hazards
 Size of building
 Type of construction
 Security Feature
 Time of Day
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