Basmati Rice by Azhar-u-Din Bhatti at Las Vegas

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Basmati Rice
by
Azhar Bhatti
BASMATI RICE
• Basmati was identified in 1926 from village
Kolo Tarar in Distt Hafizabad in Punjab,
Pakistan
• The first variety Basmati-370 was registered
in1933 by Kala Shah Kaku Rice Research
Station, Distt Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan
HIMALAYAS WATER
FLOOD PLAINS OF PUNJAB
MAP OF GROWING REGIONS
 Rice growing
 Indus valley civilization-2600B.C
 Basmati-Centuries old-Folk lore
 Aromatic rice
 Outcome of a combination of soil, water, weather & farmer practices
BASMATI DISTRICTS
Name
Area in (000)Hect
Name
Area in (000)Hect
Lahore
31
Gujrat
52
Nankana Sahib
81
Jhang
99
Sheikhupura
158
Toba Tek Singh
32
Hafizabad
81
Faisalabad
36
Gujranwala
167
Khushab
19
Narowal
97
Sargodha
50
Sialkot
182
Mandi Baha-u-Din
89
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
 Rice growing
 Indus valley civilization-2600B.C
 Basmati-Centuries old-Folk lore
 Aromatic rice
 Outcome of a combination of soil, water, weather & farmer practices
LINK TO ORIGIN
 The aroma and quality of grain linked to origin
 The combination only found in Punjab
 Aroma and quality vanish outside specific area
BASMATI PRODUCTION
2007
2008
2009
MMT/Bill$
MMT/Bill$
MMT/Bill$
2.5/1.0
2.45/1.17
2.6/2.4
Traditional Variety
0.08/0.01
0.08/0.12
0.08/0.16
Evolved Variety
2.42/1.37
2.37/1.05
2.52/2.24
Total Annual crop
EXPORTS
 Total Annual Basmati crop
2007
MMT/Bill$
2008
2009
MMT/Bill$ MMT/Bill$
 Annual Exports
0.91/0.59
1.28/0.98
0.91/1.2
 Traditional Variety
0.04/0.005
0.04/0.06
0.04/0.08
 Evolved Variety
0.87/0.585
1.24/0.92
0.87/1.12
TOP THREE COUNTRIES OF
EXPORT
Top 3 Countries for Export by Variety
 Traditional Variety
i)KSA ii) IRANiii)MUSCAT iv)QATAR
 Evolved Variety
i)KSA ii) IRANiii)MUSCAT iv)QATAR
PRICE DETERMINATION
The Government announces a reference price for paddy to protect the farmer
and intervenes in case prices are below this bench mark. The costs of
milling, processing , packaging, storage, credit transportation etc are added
to the purchase price to determine the final price.
TRADITIONAL BASMATI RICE
 Growing and Harvest Season?
 Nursery sowing 20th May to 30th June
 Transplantation after 30 to 40 days
 Harvesting late October to end of November.
Varieties and quantities available
 Basmati-370
=
2-3%
 Basmati Pak (Kernel)
=
2-3%
 Shaheen Basmati, B-2000
=
2-3%
 Basmati-385
=
10%
 Super Basmati
=
80%
FARMER ORGANIZATIONS
 Basmati Growers Association, Lahore-2005
 Farmers Associates of Pakistan-1992
 Where does the farmer obtain seed?
 Government controlled seed companies and self retained farmer seed.
 Are land stewardship, growing and harvesting practices
shared or monitored?
 More than 90% of land is owner cultivated and self managed
Farm Gate Pricing





How established? Premiums paid for quality? Who pays the farmer?
Private sector
Indicative price by Government
Minimal intervention
The indicative price of the Govt. helps in establishing the farm gate price.
Premium for quality never exceeds 5%. Govt. rarely intervenes by
purchasing 7% of the total produce through rice mills. Except for the last
year 100% of the farmers produce is bought by the private sector directly
from the farmer or through agents in the market.
 How many mills process Basmati?
 More than 2,000 rice mills.
 How does the rice get to the mill?
 The rice (paddy) is purchased from the farmer directly at the farm, at the
market or at the mills gate.
What are the steps in the milling process?
a)
Sun drying/mechanical drying
b) 3 to 4 days of returning to room temperature
c)
Stacking/storing
d) Or milling
e)
Milling, processing & packaging for sale
Usually the processing in only done when the rice has to be sold,
otherwise it is stored as brown rice or slightly polished rice.
What makes a mill a good mill?
 A mill which has the following capacities
a) To inspect and analyze paddy purchases
b) To dry and store while ensuring origin, variety and quality.
c) Its machinery produces with minimum breakage and wastages
d) The milling, processing & packaging is at the same premises
e) Storage is pest free.
f) Has the financial strength to age (store) rice for atleast 6 months to one year
& supply quality on a constant basis
g) HACCP & ISO-9002 approved
Packaging
 Is packaging done at the mill or elsewhere?
 Export packing is done at the processing mill
 Recommended packaging material, styles and size?
 Packaging ranges from 1Kg, 5Kg, 10Kg, 25Kg and 50Kg. The material
used for 50Kg and 25Kg packing is polypropylene or cotton printed bags.
Smaller packing are usually in zipped cotton handbags.
What are the grades and standards of each grade?
 The grades and standards are established by the Pakistan Quality Standards
Authority and generally relate to broken % variations
 What portion of annual harvest falls into each grade?
 The annual harvest is usually the best grade except for the post harvest
handling which also include processes outside the farm reduce this
component by 15% to 20%
 Possibility for 100% guarantee and traceability from seed to bag:
 Each purchased consignment is allotted a definite lot number along with
the name of the farm and number of the field.
 To include but not limited to seed variety, farm, region, transportation
to mill, milling process/segregation, packaging, etc……
 Each variety is separately handled and the final product is stored
accordingly.
DNA Testing
 Is this necessary to ensure Traditional Basmati variety?
 This is unnecessary if the capacity to inspect and analyze the different
varieties of Basmati exists with the buyer and origin is ensured.
 Where and when should it be done in the production cycle?
 In case it is necessary, the test should be done before packing of the
consignment at the mills.
 Cost associated
 Each sample takes a week in the process and costs about 200$.
 Organic Traditional Basmati milled rice
 1,000 Hectares producing 2,400 MT
 Evolved Basmati varieties
 12,650 Hectares producing 30,000MT
 Certified(NOP/USDA) organic Basmati rice=7,000 MT
 Premium charged= 20-25%
 Is there significant land stewardship practices compared to
conventional?
 Definitely yes because it requires extra efforts.
THANKS
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