SUMMER (WARM SEASON) VEGETABLES

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SUMMER
(WARM SEASON)
VEGETABLES
Summer or warm season vegetables need:
sunshine (long hot days)
warm soil
warm air
In order to:
grow and mature
develop sugar
develop flavor
For warm season vegetables, cold
temperatures mean:
no germination
no flowers
slow growth
no fruit
no flavor
What is in season?
• Corn
• Lima Beans
• Cucumbers
• Okra
• Eggplant
• Peppers
• Green beans
• Summer Squash
• Jimaca
• Tomatoes
CORN
CORN
• Varieties
Yellow
White
Blue
Multi-colored
Black
Red
Baby
New varieties are extra sweet.
Sugar converts to starch after harvesting.
BLACK CORN-PERU
MULTI-COLORED
RED CORN
BLUE CORN
ANCIENT CORN
WHITE CORN
CORN
• Cooking
– Boiling – 3 to 5 minutes
– Roasting
– Grilling
– Baking
• Commonly eaten on
the cob in US.
CORN
• CULTURE
– Mexico – 7,000 YEARS OLD
– Thai – corn ice cream
– Hispanic – masa, tamales, arepas, tortillas
– US southern – corn meal, corn bread, corn
fritters
– New England – corn chowder, corn pudding
– Italy (north) - Polenta
• Animal fodder
MAYAN CORN
MASK
INDIAN CORN
EVERYBODY LOVES CORN
CUCUMBERS
LEMON CUCUMBERS
ARMENIAN CUCUMBER
JAPANESE CUCMBER
WHITE CUCUMBERS
ENGLISH (BURPLESS) CUCUMBERS
PICKLING CUCUMBERS
CUCUMBERS
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Native to India
Commonly eaten raw – can be cooked
Peeled or unpeeled
3 Basic Types
– Slicing or Salad
– Pickling
– Gherkins
CUCUMBERS
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Commercial – wax coating
Shriveled ends = old
Bitter taste – growing conditions
Larger cukes = more seeds
Remove seeds & gel
– More digestible for some
– Prevents watering down dish
SNAP BEANS
(GREEN BEANS)
SNAP/GREEN BEANS
• Varieties
– Edible pod beans
• Snap
–Green
–Purple
• turn green
when cooked
SNAP BEANS
–Golden
–Wax
• Look waxy
• Don’ taste it
SNAP BEANS
– Romano
• Italian
• Thicker,flatter
– Haricot Vert
• Filet beans
• Pencil-thin
PEPPERS
(CHILES)
PEPPERS
• Varities
Sweet
• Bell
• Pimiento
• Banana
• Italian
Hot
• Chile
• Jalapeno
• Serrano
• Tabasco
• Cayenne
• Hungarian Wax
Capsaicin
Heat
Veins and seeds
Not the walls
Scoville Heat Units
Measure of heat
Jalapeno
2,500 to 4,000
Tabasco
60,000 to 80,000
Color not a factor
OKRA
OKRA
• Varieties
– Green
– Red
– White
OKRA
OKRA FLOWER
HIBISCUS FLOWER
OKRA
• Large pods are tough
• Does not store well
– Toughens
– Loses color
• Came from Africa on
slave ships.
• Called “Lady Fingers”
OKRA
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Usually served hot
Sticky juice – cooked
Acts as thickener
Described as
– Slimy
– Ropy
OKRA
• Popular in:
S
t
i
– India
– Africa
– Caribbean
– Southern US
• Cajun
• Creole
OKRA
• Cooking
– Boil
– Braise
– Steam
– Saute
– Microwave
– Fry
• Southern US – dipped
in cornmeal
TOMATOES
TOMATOES
• Varieties
– Over 500
– Wide range of shapes, sizes, colors
• 3 Categories
– Cherry Tomatoes
– Round/Slicing Tomatoes
– Plum/Paste Tomatoes
TOMATOES
• Heirloom
– Old, non hybrid varieties
• Hybrid
– A cross between 2 genetically different
plants
• Specialty
– Different or unusual – might be a heirloom
or a hybrid
TOMATOES
• Never refrigerate tomatoes – flavor loss
– Exceptions: extreme heat, over ripe
• Ripen in a brown bag out of sunlight
• Vitamin A content determined by color
– Orange – most
– Red and yellow
– White – the least
• Nutrients in the gel around
the seeds
TOMATOES
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Native to South America
Believed poisonous until 1700’s
In the top 5 favorite vegetables in US
Each American eats 20 lbs. of fresh
tomatoes annually, plus 70 lbs. of
processed-ketchup, salsa, BBQ sauce
• Not a vegetable – a fruit
• Lycopene & beta carotene give red
tomatoes their color
TOMATOES
• Southern US favorite
– Fried Green Tomatoes
EGGPLANT
EGGPLANT
• Varieties
– Color
• Purple-black
• Green
• Pink
• White
• Yellow
• Orange
EGGPLANT
– Shapes
• Oval
• Oblong
• Round
CHINESE EGGPLANT
TURKISH EGGPLANT
VIETNAMESE EGGPLANT
AFRICAN EGGPLANT
AMERICAN EGGPLANT
ROSA BIANCA – ITALIAN EGGPLANT
INDIAN EGGPLANT
THAI EGGPLANT
EGGPLANT
• Name
– Early fruit small, white, round
• Culture
– India or maybe China
– Eggplant Parmigiana – Italy
– Caponata – Italy
– Ratatouille – France
– Moussaka – Greece
– Baba Ghanoush – Middle East
EGGPLANT
• Cooking
– Never eaten raw
– Cook thoroughly
– Spongy texture
• Soaks up oil
– Cook quickly-hot pan
– Salt and press prior to cooking
• May remove bitterness
EGGPLANT
• Limited storage
• Dull color, brown spots=old
• Peeling
– Depends on the recipe
– Depends on the eggplant
• older & tougher - yes
• Discolors when cut
– Oxidizes
• lemon juice, water
NOT EVERYONE LIKES EGGPLANT
EGGPLANT – 0 – LANTERNS
SUMMER SQUASH
SUMMER SQUASH
• Varieties
– Chayote
– Crook-necked
– Scalloped/Pattypan
• Green, yellow,
white
– Straight
• Green, yellow
–Zucchini
– Round
• Sunburst
SUMMER SQUASH
• Summer and Winter Squash
– Both grown in summer
– Summer is immature
– Winter is mature
• Harvested in fall
• Hardened rind
SUMMER SQUASH
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Small are best – no longer than 8 inches
Round squash – no larger than 4” dia.
Larger squash = more and larger seeds
95% water
Absorbs other flavors
Do not peel
Eat raw or cooked
Flowers are edible
SUMMER SQUASH
• Cooking
– DO NOT OVERCOOK!
• Steam
• Sauté
• Grill
• Bake
• Microwave
• Stuff
SUMMER SQUASH
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