# Heat, Light, Sound

```Heat, Light and Sound =
Energy
 Energy is when
something has the
ability to do work.
 Examples: fire can
make heat energy, the
sun can make light
energy and a trumpet
can make sound
energy.
Forms of energy waves
 Many forms of energy travel in
waves.
 Mechanical waves, like sound
waves, seismic waves and water
waves, need a medium to travel
through. A medium is anything
in which an energy wave can
flow through.
 Electromagnetic waves like
visible light and radio waves can
travel through nothing as well as
many different mediums.
Waves
 Energy often travels in waves and
the strength of the energy
depends on how high the wave is
or how close the waves are
together.
 Transverse waves move at a right
angle to the energy flow.
 The highest point of a transverse
waves is called a crest and the
lowest point is called a trough.
Wavelength
 Wavelength is the
distance between two
crests of a wave or
two troughs.
Amplitude
 Amplitude is the
measure of how
much energy a wave
is carrying.
 The greater the
amplitude, the greater
the energy.
Frequency
 The frequency is the number of
waves that pass by a set point in
a second.
 Frequency is measured in hertz
(waves per second).
 Frequency is related to
wavelength. The larger the
wavelength the lower the
frequency. The smaller the wave
length the higher the frequency.
 The higher the frequency the
greater the energy.
What do you think?
 What has more energy?
 A wave with a high amplitude
and a short wave length.
 Or a wave with a long
wavelength and a short
amplitude.
 The wave with a high
amplitude and a short
wavelength has a lot more
energy.
La Energía
 La energía : la capacidad de
hacer un trabajo.
 La energía viaja como las
ondas.
Las Ondas
 Las ondas : son cadenas de
moléculas con vibración.
 Las ondas se mueven arriba y
abajo.
La Frecuencia
 La frecuencia: es un tipo de
medición que cuenta el número
de ondas que pasan por un punto
 Cuando la frecuencia sea alta
hay mas energía.
 Cuando la frecuencia sea baja
hay menos energía.
La longitud de onda
 La longitud de onda : medida que
describe lo larga que es una onda.
 La longitud de onda es pequeña.
 La longitud de onda es grande.
El medio
 El medio: una sustancia que
puede transmitir una onda.
 El aire es un medio que puede
transmitir ondas de luz.
 La luz viaja rápidamente.
Viajar
 yo viajo
 tú viajas
 él viaja
 nosotros viajamos
 vosotros viajáis
 ellos viajan
 Las ondas de sonido viajan hasta
nuestros oidos.
Heat
 Heat is the total amount of
energy an object has because of
its moving molecules.
 Heat is capable of being
transmitted through solids and
liquids by conduction, through
fluid media by convection, and
through empty space by
Temperature vs. Heat
Heat is the total amount of
energy in a system
Temperature is a measure of the
average kinetic energy of each
atom in that system.
Example:
Both glasses have the same
temperature (molecules are
moving at same speed) but a
different heat because the
glass with more water has
more molecules moving
around to transfer the energy.
Consider each glass to be a system
Same temperature
Higher heat
Lower heat
Conduction
 Conductor- remember a conductor is
an object that allows energy (like heat
and electricity) to travel through it
easily.
 Conduction is the transfer of heat
between two objects because they are
touching each other.
 Examples:

Placing a pan on a burner

Touching a curling iron with your hand
Types of Conductors
 Good conductors are objects that energy
(like heat) flows through easily.
 Metal is a great conductor, that is
why we use it for pans.
 Poor conductors are objects that energy
does not travel well through. We call
these insulators.
 Wood, cloth, plastic and rubber are
insulators because they do not allow
energy to pass through them easily.
That is why they are used for things
like pot holders and handles, so that
you do not burn yourself.
Convection
 Convection is the transfer of heat
through liquids and gases as
molecules circulate in currents.
Convection represents the transfer
of heat by circulation or
movement of the hot particles to
cooler areas.
Convection through liquids.
Convection through liquids (water)
* A pan full of water heats up
on a stove. First the water on
the bottom heats up. The hot
water then is pushed out of
the way by the cooler water
on top (because cool water
sinks) and this water warms
up. This will go on until all of
the water is the same
temperature. If the water
continues to heat up it will
evaporate. This circulation of
heat is called convection.
Convection through gases.
Convection through gas (air)
* As the hot ground warms
the cool air above it, the air
starts to rise. Warm air
always rises because it is less
dense. Cool air always sinks
because it is more dense. As
the air warms up, cooler air
sinks and pushes the warm
air up and out of the way.
This movement of heat
energy through the air is
called convection.
 Radiation is the transfer of
energy by electromagnetic waves.
space (nothing).
to Earth and warms us up.
 Examples
 The sun warming your face.
 Heat from a light bulb (without
touching it).
Absorption
 Absorption – Taking in or
swallowing up energy.
 Examples



When you touch a hot object your
hand will absorb the energy and your
hand will become warmer. (heat is
energy!
Solar panels absorb heat energy from
the sun and turn it into usable power.
Earth absorbs the sun’s radiant energy
and that heat warms Earth’s cooler
air. That is how Earth is warm
enough to live on.
El calor
 El calor: un tipo de energía
contenida dentro de un objeto a
causa del movimiento de sus
moléculas.
 Los objetos calientes tienen
moléculas que se mueven
rápidamente.
El conductor
 El conductor: es un material en
que energía puede moverse
fácilmente.
 Un aislador es un material en
que la corriente de energía no
puede pasar fácilmente, como
el plástico.
La conducción
 La conducción: El translado de
calor entre sustancias por
contacto directo.
La convección
 La convección: El translado de
calor por los líquidos y los gases
cuando los moléculas se circulan
en corrientes.
calor por espacio en la forma de
ondas.
La absorción
 La absorción: El proceso de
colectar energía.
Light
 Light is a form of energy that
zooms around in both waves and
particles (photons).
 There is both artificial light and
natural light.
 Artificial light
 Light bulbs
 Candle and other burning
objects
 Natural Light
 Sun
 Chemical reactions in animals

Radiant energy is a form of
energy transferred by
pass through space and it
described as a spectrum.

energy are:


Red, Visible Light, Ultra
Violet Light, X-Ray,
Gamma
A spectrum is a series of
energy bands. The colors red,
orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo, and violet, arranged in
order of their wavelengths and
seen when white light passes
through a prism. (Roy G. Biv)
Photons
 Light travels in two ways:
through photons and through
waves.
 Photons are tiny, invisible,
packets of light.
 Photons have different levels of
energy. The shorter the
wavelength the higher the
energy.
 Red light has the longest
wavelength and the least amount
of energy.
 Light moves in waves also.
 Waves are measured by their
frequency, or how closely they
travel together.
 High frequency waves travel
closer together and have a
higher energy.
 Low frequency waves travel
farther apart and have a lower
energy.
 Wavelength is the distance
between the peaks of two
different waves.
Waves
Refraction
 Normally light travels in a straight
path, but when it hits an object of a
different density the light will bend
this is called refraction.
 Refraction – When light bends as it
travels from one medium to another.
 A medium is any substance
through which a wave is transmitted
(sent through).
 Light does not need a medium in
order to travel, it can travel through
space where there are not air
particles to carry it. This is useful
otherwise we would not be able to
use the sun’s energy.
Hey that’s me!
Reflection
 Our ability to see depends on the
reflection of light.
 Reflection is when rays of light
or heat are reflected, or bounced
off other objects.
 If light reflects off a smooth
surface (like a mirror) it will
bounce off at the same angle.
This is how we are able to see
our selves perfectly through a flat
mirror.
Hit Me!!
 Light hits objects at certain
angles.
 Angle of incidence – The
angle at which light strikes a
surface.
 Angle of reflection – The
angle at which light bounces
off a surface
Mathresources.com
sol.sci.uop.edu
Color in light
 Visible light is made up of many
different colors.
 White light is the combination
of all colors.
 Blackness is the absence of all
light.
 We see colors when a particular
color is reflected off the surface
of an object. The other colors
are absorbed.
 Colored light can be combined
to create different colors.
Prisms
 We can see the different colors of light
when white light enters a prism and
refracts (bends).
 Remember a prism is a 3D shape with
two bases that are the same shape.
 The prism refracts the light and
separates the colors. Each color of
light bends slightly differently than the
others.
 A rainbow occurs because raindrops
act as prisms. The sunlight enters the
raindrop and is refracted, creating a
rainbow.
La luz
 La luz: es una forma de energía
que se mueve por las ondas y los
fotones.
La refracción
 La refracción: una desviación de
las ondas luminosas cuando
pasan por materiales diferentes.
La reflexión
 La reflexión: un cambio de
dirección de las ondas luminosas
cuando rebotan de un objeto.
La prisma
 La prisma: un trozo de vidrio
que divide los colores
diferentes de luz.
El espectro
 El espectro: Los colores: rojo,
azul, indigo y violeta se
arreglan según sus longitudes de
onda.
ver
 yo veo
 tú ves
 usted/él/ella ve
 nosotros/as vemos
 vosotros/as véis
 ustedes/ellos/ellas
ven
Sound
 Sound, like heat and light, is a form of
energy.
 Sound is heard because it makes air
particles vibrate (rapid back and forth
movement).
 Sound travels through air as sound waves.
Sound waves travel in all directions from
the source of the wave.
 Sound waves are different from
electromagnetic waves, because sound
waves need a medium to pass through. If
sound waves don’t have something to pass
through, they don’t go anywhere.
 Sound can also travel through water, metal
and other things.
Pitch
 Pitch is how high or low a
sounds is.
 Pitch depends on how close
together the waves are in a
sound wave or high the
frequency is.
 The closer the waves are the
higher the pitch.
 Waves with a lower frequency,
or waves that are farther apart,
have a lower pitch.
Loudness or Volume
 The loudness of a sound is called
volume. How loud a sound is
depends upon how many particles
are moved by the sound wave, or
how high the amplitude of a wave
is.
 If a sound wave moves a lot of
particles, the sound is loud.
 If a sound wave moves a small
amount of particles, the sound is
soft.
 A sound wave with a loud sound
has a high amplitude and visa
versa.
Decibels
 The loudness of a sound is
measured in decibels.
 The higher the decibel the
louder the sound is.
 What object has the loudest
sound?
Sound
travels
 Sound waves don’t only travel
through air (gas).
 Sounds travels farther through
solids and liquids because the
particles in solids and liquids are
closer together than they are in
gases.
What happens to sound waves?
 The farther away you are from a
sound, the harder it is to hear.
 This is because as sound travels
it loses energy. It will eventually
run out of energy and the sound
can no longer be heard.
 Loud sounds have more energy
and it takes them longer to lose
their energy.
El sonido
 El sonido: como el calor y la luz,
el sonido en una forma de energía
que viaja mediante ondas.
 Podemos oír sonidos con nuestros
oídos.
 El sonido es ruidoso.
 El sonido es suave.
La vibración
 La vibración es un movimiento
rápido que se mueve hacia
 La vibración es rápida.
 La vibración es lenta.
 La echada: cómo alto o bajo una
nota musical suena.
 Yo oigo la echada alta.
 María oye la echada baja.
El volumen
•
El volumen es el nivel de
•
El volumen es mínimo.
•
El volumen el máximo.
Oír
 yo oigo
 tú oyes
 usted/él/ella oye
 nosotros/as oímos
 vosotros/as oís
 ustedes/ellos/ellas oyen
```

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