NAVEDTRA 43904-C SEABEE COMBAT WARFARE COMMON CORE October 2010 Unit 111 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare Fundamentals CBR Warfare • References (a) TM EE168-DB-OMP-010, Operators and Unit Maintenance Manual for Alarm, Chemical Agent, Automatic, M-22 (b) NAVEDTRA 14057, Damage Controlman (c) NAVEDTRA 14235 Seabee Combat Handbook, Vol 2 (d) TM 3-4240-346-109 Chemical Biological Mask, Type M-40A CBR Warfare (e) NAVEDTRA 14234 Seabee Combat Handbook, Vol 1 (f) FM 3-4, NMC Protection (g) NAVMED P-5041 Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties (h) FM 3-3 Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance (i) FM 3-5, NBC Decontamination (j) Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for NBC Protection CBR Warfare (k) TM SS200-AP-MMO-010 Operator Manual for Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JLIST) Chemical Protective Ensemble (l) FM 3-7, NBC Field Handbook US POLICY NUCLEAR WEAPONS • The US may use nuclear weapons to terminate a conflict or war at the lowest acceptable level of hostilities. This is interpreted to mean that the US may use nuclear weapons first. The employment of nuclear weapons by the US is governed by guidance to the joint force commander (JFC) as contained in JP 3-12, Doctrine For Joint Nuclear Operations, and other strategic level directives. The US is party to treaties and international agreements that limit proliferation, testing, and possession of nuclear weapons. US POLICY CHEM WEAPONS • The US will never use chemical weapons. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which the US ratified on 29 April 1997, bans the acquisition, development, production, retention, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons. US POLICY BIO WEAPONS • The US will never use biological weapons. Under the terms of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which the US ratified on 29 March 1975, parties agreed not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes. »FM 3-11 CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.1 Explain the following: – Chemical Warfare – Biological Warfare – Radiological Warfare – Routes by which agents enter the body. • Reference: (e, Ch 9) NAVEDTRA 14234 Seabee Combat Handbook, Vol 1 Chemical Warfare Chemical Warfare • Produces physiological and psychological effect • Delivered in liquid and vapor form • Causes casualties • Degrades performance • Disrupts support • Restricts maneuvers Chemical Warfare • Chemical agents are used to produce death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or irritating effects. • Three types of antipersonnel agents – Casualty (nerve, blister, choking, blood) – Incapacitating (symptoms vary) – Harassing (tear and vomiting gases) Biological Warfare Biological Warfare The intentional release of living organisms or substances produced by living organisms to cause Death or Disease Biological Warfare • Biological operations use living organisms to cause disease or death. • Cause diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, and influenza. • Difficult to detect because evidence of attack isn’t discovered until after personnel show signs of exposure. Radiological Warfare • Nuclear weapons produce explosions of great force and heat and release nuclear radiation. Their primary purpose is the mass destruction of property and personnel. CBR Warfare • Routes by which agents enter the body – Breathing – Absorption through skin, eyes, mucus membranes – Ingestion CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.2 Describe the purpose of the following: – – – – Protective mask (ref b, ch. 9, p 9-1) Chemical protective JSLIST ensemble (reb b, ch. 9, p 9-4) Atropine/2pam chloride (ref e, ch. 9, p 9-8) Pocket dosimeter (ref b, ch. 11, p 11-5) • Reference: NAVEDTRA 14057, Damage Controlman Chemical Weapons MCU-2/P Protective Mask • Protects face, eyes, nose, throat and lungs from CBR agents or contamination • Offers no protection against carbon monoxide or ammonia • Filters the air removing particles of dust that may be radioactive or otherwise contaminated • Purifies the air of many poisonous gases. Protective Equipment • Chemical Protective Ensemble The JSLIST overgarment is designed to replace the Battle Dress Overgarment, the USMC Saratoga, and the Navy Chemical Protective Overgarment. It is lighter and less bulky than the previous Battle Dress Overgarment (BDO) chemical protective garments, is durable for 45 days, can be laundered up to six times and provides 24 hours of protection against liquid and vapor chemical challenges. Protective Equipment • Wet-weather clothing – Provides complete protection against alpha/beta radiological contamination when worn with battle dress and antiflash gear – Provides an extra layer of protection for the chemical protective overgarment. Protective Equipment • Atropine/2Pam Chloride auto-injector –Used to counteract the effects of and relieve the symptoms of nerve agents only. Protective Equipment • Pocket Dosimeter –Size and shape of a fountain pen. –Measure exposure to radiation over a period of time Protective Mask • PQS Question 111.3 Describe the operation and maintenance of the protective mask. • Reference: (d, Ch 2 & 3) TM 3-4240-346-109 Chemical Biological Mask, type M-40A M-40A • 1. Place your chin in. • 2. Cover openings at bottom of outlet valve and breathe out hard so that air escapes around the edges of facepiece. • 3. Cover inlet port of canister and breath in. Facepiece should collapse against your face, and remain so while you hold your breath. If it does, you have an airtight seal. If it does not collapse check for matter between face piece and your face. • 4. Grasp tab and pull head harness over your head after establishing an airtight seal. M-40A • The only authorized cleaning agent for your FPM is WARM SOAPY WATER. • Remove the canister before cleaning the mask. Clean the mask. Clean the mask inside and out, using a clean cloth dipped in the soapy water. • Rinse by wiping with a clean cloth that has been dipped in warm clear water. • Either wipe the facepiece with a clean, lint free cloth or air-dry. CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.4 Explain the three types of anti-personnel agents and their physical symptoms. • Reference: [e, ch. 9-1] Anti-personnel agents • Casualty Agents - Highly poisonous and are intended to kill or seriously injure. Included in this group are nerve, blister, choking, and blood agents. Nerve agents, as a group, are probably the most effective because only small doses are needed to produce death. • Incapacitating - It renders personnel incapable of performing their duties by interfering with the mental processes that control bodily functions. • Harassing - include tear and vomiting gases that cause temporary disability. CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.5 Describe the following types of nuclear explosions. [ref b, ch. 10] – Air burst – High altitude burst – Surface burst – Underwater burst – Underground burst • Reference: NAVEDTRA 14057, Basic Damage Control Nuclear Explosions Air Burst – Fire ball does not touch the earth – All materials in fireball vaporized – Maximize blast and thermal effect over large area High Altitude Burst High Altitude Burst – Point of detonation is above 100,000 ft – Produces air blast, thermal radiation, EMP, initial nuclear radiation, and atmospheric ionization. – Last from minutes to hours Surface Burst Surface Burst – Detonation is on, or above the surface of the earth, and the fireball touches the surface. – Air blast, thermal radiation, EMP. – Over water causes damage to Submarines Nuclear Explosions Underwater Burst – Practically all thermal radiation absorbed – Large base serge is formed which billows up several hundred feet Underground Burst Underground Burst – Produces a severe earth shock, especially near point of detonation. – Thermal radiation, air blast, initial nuclear radiation, and fallout will be negligible or absent if the burst is confined below the surface. – Ground shock will cause damage within about three crater radii but little beyond CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.6 Describe the following effects of nuclear explosions. – Air Blast – Thermal radiation – Nuclear radiation – Electromagnetic Pulse phenomenon – Fallout • Reference: [b, ch. 10] Nuclear Explosions • Air Blast – Primary blast injuries result from the direct action of the air shock wave on the human body. – Secondary blast injuries are caused mainly by collapsing buildings and by timber and other debris flung about by the blast. Nuclear Explosions • Thermal Radiation – Radiant energy (heat and light) emitted by fireball. – Travels at the speed of light and persists as long as the fireball is luminous. – Over land – ignites fires – As weapon yield increases, the range at which thermal radiation can cause skin burns and eye injuries to exposed personnel increases Nuclear Explosions • Nuclear Radiation – Alpha particles: Must be taken into the body through ingestion or cuts to be injurious. – Beta particles: Enter through the skin or ingestion, carried in contaminated dust, dirt, or bomb residue Nuclear Explosions • Nuclear Radiation Gamma Rays: Pure energy and not easily stopped, can penetrate every region of the body. Gamma rays strike atoms in the body cause ionization of these atoms, which may result in any number of possible chemical reactions that damage the cells of the body. Nuclear Explosions • Nuclear Radiation – Neutrons: Have the greatest penetrating power of the nuclear radiation hazards, create hazards to personnel when the neutron is captured in atoms of various elements in the body, atmosphere, water, or soil. – The captured elements become radioactive and release gamma rays and beta particles. Nuclear Explosions • Electromagnetic Pulse phenomenon – An EMP is an intense burst of radiofrequency radiation generated by a nuclear explosion. – The strong, quick-rising surges of electric current induced by EMP in power transmission lines and long antennas could burn out most unprotected electrical and electronic equipment. Nuclear Explosions • Fallout – Major effect of a surface, shallow underground, or underwater burst. – Radioactive material that falls from the nuclear cloud and is deposited on exposed surfaces. – Consists primarily of fission products (gamma/beta emitters) mixed with material that was vaporized by the fireball and drawn up into the nuclear cloud. CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.7 Define Mission Oriented Protective Posture and describe the levels. • Reference: [f, ch. 2, pp 2-1 thru 2-3] MOPP Levels CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.8 Describe the correct procedures for inspecting, maintaining, the JSLIST chemical protective ensemble. • Reference: [k, ch. 2, pp. 2-1 thru 2-11] Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Protective Clothing NATO NBC Markers • PQS Question 111.9 Describe the colors and markings on the NATO biological, chemical and radiological marker signs. • Reference: [e, ch. 9, p. 9-19] NBC Markers NBC Marking Kit • NATO-standard triangular signs • Markers are placed outside the contaminated area • Markers face out from contamination NBC Markers Chemical Marker GAS H 091900ZAPR99 NBC Markers Biological Marker BIO Anthrax 091900ZAPR99 NBC Markers Radiological Marker ATOM 091900ZAPR99 150 R/hr H/hr 091200ZAPR99 M9 Paper • PQS Question 111.10 Describe the color that the M-9 chemical agent detector paper turns after it comes in contact with a liquid nerve or blister agent. • Reference: [e, Ch 9, p. 9-6] M9 Paper M9 Paper • Detects the presence of liquid nerve and blister agents. • Spots or streaks on the paper appear pink, redbrown, red-purple, or any shade of red, assume it has been exposed to a chemical agent. M8 Paper • PQS Question 111.11 Describe the color that the M-8 paper turns after it comes in contact with a liquid nerve or blister agent. • Reference: [b, ch. 9, p. 9-11] M9 Paper • • • • Yellow-gold indicates G (nerve) agent Red-pink indicates H (blister) agent Dark green indicates V (nerve) agent If any other color or no color change, liquid cannot be identified Nerve Agents • PQS Question 111.12 Explain the following as it applies to nerve agents. – Symptoms [ch. 2, p. 2-11] – Contents of NAA kit (NAAK) [app e, p. e-1] – Treatment (self and buddy aid) [app e, p. e-4] • Reference: [g] Nerve Agents • Symptoms of nerve agent poisoning » Unexplained sudden headache » Unexplained runny nose » Drooling » Difficulty with vision (dimness of vision) » Tightness in chest/difficulty in breathing » Localized sweating/muscle twitching in contaminated area of the skin » Stomach cramps » Nausea Nerve Agents • Severe symptoms. Casualties with severe symptoms can experience most or all of the mild symptoms and most or all of the symptoms listed below: – Strange or confused behavior – Wheezing, severe difficulty in breathing, and coughing Nerve Agents »Red eyes with possible tearing »Vomiting »Severely pinpointed pupils »Severe muscular twitching and general weakness »Involuntary urination and defecation »Convulsions »Unconsciousness »Respiratory failure Nerve Agents Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK) • Auto-injectors: • 1 ea Atropine • 1 ea 2PAM Chloride Nerve Agents • Treatment (Self) • Don the protective mask • Remove a NAAK from the protective mask carrier • Inject the thigh with the first injector from the kit (atropine) hold against thigh for at least 10 seconds Nerve Agents • Follow immediately with second injector of 2-pam chloride and hold for at least 10 seconds. • Bend needle to form a hook and place on the protective outergarment • Massage injection site if time permits • Wait 10 - 15 minutes before administering second series of injections (no more than three) • Administer the back pressure arm-lift method of artificial ventilation if breathing is difficult or has ceased. Nerve Agents • Treatment (Buddy Aid) • Mask the casualty. • Using the Naak belonging to the victim, administer three sets of injections immediately and in rapid succession in the thigh muscle of the log. • Hook the expended auto injectors to the overgarment pocket flap of the victim. Nerve Agents – Administer the back pressure arm-lift method of artificial ventilation if breathing is difficult or has ceased. – Seek medical attention NOW Decontamination Kits • PQS Question 111.13 Describe the steps and procedures in utilizing the M258A1 and M291 decontamination kits. • Reference: [i, ch. 2, p. 2-1 thru 2-2] Decontamination Kits M258A1 Decontamination • Currently being removed from service • Replaced by M-291 Kit • 6 Packets per kit – 3 - #1 Packets (Use for 1 minute) – 3 - #2 Packets (Use for 2 minutes) • M-280 is large version of M258A1 and is used for equipment decon. Decontamination Kits • Steps and procedures for using the M258A1and M291 decontamination kit for skin: • Open the decontamination kit, and pull out one DECON 1 pad packet by the tab • Fold the packet on the solid line marked "BEND", then unfold it • Tear the packet open quickly at the notch, remove, and unfold the pad. Decontamination Kits • Wipe your skin for 1 minute. • Deposit the pad in a proper container. • Pull out one DECON 2 pad packet. Crush the enclosed glass ampoules between your thumb and fingers. • Fold the packet on the solid line marked "CRUSH AND BEND", then unfold it. • Tear the packet open quickly at the notch, and remove the pad. Decontamination Kits • Fully open the pad. Let the encased crushed glass ampoules fall into a proper container. • Wipe the contaminated skin for 2 to 3 minutes. Decontamination Kits M291 Skin Decontamination Kit • Replaces the M258A1 • Wallet-like pouch with 6 decon packets – Black, reactive, and absorbent resin power – Attached strap for inserting finger • M-295 is large version of M291 and is used for equipment decon. JSLIST • PQS Question 111.14 State how long the Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) will provide protection from chemical agents once they are removed from the packaging under the following conditions. – Exposed to Chemical Agents – Not exposed to Chemical Agents • Reference: [k, par. A] JSLIST The Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) will replace the CPO suit. It can be worn over the uniform, or over undergarments. It can be worn up to 45 days in an uncontaminated environment, or up to 120 days with up to six launderings. JSLIST • It can be worn up to 24 hours in a contaminated environment, and is available in a woodland or desert camo pattern. JSLIST Laundering • PQS Question 111.15 Discuss the laundering procedures for the JSLIST • Reference: [k, para. B] JSLIST • Make sure all slide and hook-and-pile fasteners are secured to prevent rips during laundering -Use a mild detergent -Wash on PERMANENT PRESS -Tumble dry on GENTLE or hang it up on a plastic hangar and let it air dry -Do NOT use bleach or fabric softener -Never dry clean, steam press, or try to remove stains on JSLIST Decontamination • PQS Question 111.16 Describe the following types of decontamination. – Immediate – Operational – Through • Reference: [c, ch. 6, p 6-6] Decontamination • Immediate: – Skin decon – Operator spraydown • Operational: – Removal of gross contaminants – MOPP gear exchange • Thorough: – Detailed troop and equipment decon – Reduce contaminants to a negligible risk Decontamination Decontamination Decontamination Decon Station • PQS Question 111.17 Describe the procedure for setting up a personnel decontamination station. (Detailed Troop Decontamination) • Reference: [i, ch. 3, p. 3-1] Detailed Troop Decontamination • The DTD is set up in a secure, uncontaminated area located as far forward as the tactical situation permits. • Personnel from both the decontamination and the supported unit operate the DTD under the supervision of the Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense Officer or the Disaster Preparedness Operations and Training Specialist. Detailed Troop Decontamination • Removing contaminated MOPP gear, including the Protective mask, is the major action in Detailed Troop Decontamination (DTD). • If DTD is not performed chemical agents may eventually penetrate the over-garment and contaminate under clothing or skin. Detailed Troop Decontamination • The contaminated unit is responsible for setting up, Operating, and closing the DTD in a thorough decon site. • The CBR Officer recommends to the COC the general location of the DTD within the decon site. Detailed Troop Decontamination CONTAMINATION CONTROL LINE INDIVIDUAL GEAR DECON OVERBOOT AND HOOD ALTERNATE FOR DECON OVERGARMENT REMOVAL OVERBOOTS AND GLOVE REMOVAL MASK DECON POINT RADIOLOGICAL DECON SOAPY WATER RINSE SPONGES TOWELS MONITOR MASK REMOVAL LIQUID CONTAMINATION CONTROL LINE VAPOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL LINE REISSUE POINT Detailed Equipment Decontamination • PQS Question 111.18 Discuss the procedures for setting up a detailed equipment contamination line. • Reference: [i, ch. 3, p. 3-1] Detailed Equipment Decontamination • Procedures for setting up a Detailed Equipment Decon are shown in the following slides. • DED occurs simultaneously with the DTD, with consideration for utilizing the same Vapor Contamination Control Line. Equipment Decontamination 250 - 500 METERS NON-CONTAMINATED VEHICLE ROUTE Detailed Equipment Decontamination Site WIND PRE-DECON ACTIONS M12A1 M17 50-100 METERS BETWEEN STATIONS M12A1 STATION 1 PRIMARY WASH DETAILED TROOP DECON STATION 2 DS2 APPLICATION KEY STATION 3 CONTACT TIME INTERIOR DECON TROOPS TRASH CAN WATER BLADDER M17 WATER RESUPPLY M17 STATION 4 RINSE HOTLINE STATION 5 CHECK TO TACTICAL ASSEMBLY AREA CLEAN PERSONNEL CBR Teams •PQS Question 111.19 Describe the duties and responsibilities of the following CBR teams. Personal DECON [i, ch. 4, p. 4-6] Equipment Decon [i, ch. 4, p. 4-18] Survey/Monitor team [h, ch. 5, p. 5-1] Duties of CBR Team • Personnel Decontamination – Set up and operate the Detailed Troop Decontamination • Equipment Decontamination – Set up and operate the Detailed Equipment Decontamination • Survey/Monitoring Teams – Find/identify contamination or monitor movement/levels of existing contamination CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.20 State the purpose and the optimum location of the M-22 Chemical Alarm • Reference: NAVEDTRA 12003, Seabee Combat Handbook, Volume1 M22 Alarm • Primary means of detecting blister and nerve agents arriving in a unit area from an upwind chemical attack. • Detects chemical agents in vapor and aerosol form • Alerts by audible and visual signal • Interfaceable with communications systems to support battlefield automation M22 M22 Alarm • Consist of – M88 detector unit – M42 alarm unit M22 Alarm M22 Alarm M88 300M M88 300M M88 M88 M88 M88 300M 300M M42 M42 M42 M42 M42 M42 M42 CBR Surveys • PQS Question 111.21 Explain the three types of CBR surveys and their uses. • Reference: (h, Ch 5) FM 3-3, Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance Point Survey • The point surveillance mission is conducted for a specific period of time, oriented to key terrain. • It is typically conducted to ensure that time sensitive or critical operations can be conducted without unwarned encounters with chemical agent clouds or transfer hazards resulting from munitions event Route Survey • Routes and specific points may be surveyed if that information is usually found during recon operations • If conducted, the survey team goes to a specific point or points along a route and tests for the presence of liquid contamination with M8 or M9 detector paper. Area Survey • The goal of an area surveillance mission is to provide a tailored detection capability in those tactical situations where it is impractical to employ remote point samplers, such as M22 system. CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.22 What type of standard decontamination reacts violently with liquid mustard agent. • Reference: (i, app D) FM 3-5, NBC Decontamination CBR Warfare • Super-tropical bleach: STB reacts violently by igniting spontaneously upon contact with liquid mustard agent. • STB should not be inhaled or come in contact with the skin. STB gives off toxic vapors upon contact with G agents. CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.23 relates to CBR: Describe the following as it – Pre-attack actions – Attack – After • Reference: (j, Ch 2) FM 3-7, NBC Field Handbook Chemical Attack Actions • Pre-Attack Actions: • Extended wear of protective clothing. (The individual may have to adapt to wearing protective clothing and equipment for extended periods). • M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper. Attach to clothing. If spots or streaks on the paper appear pink, red-brown, redpurple or any shade of red, assume it has been exposed to a chemical agent. Chemical Attack Actions • Pre-Attack Actions • Alertness and Proficiency. Individuals must remain alert and constantly aware of the chemical threat. • Protection of Individual Equipment. Keep equipment and supplies organized and covered. Chemical Attack Actions During Attack Actions • • • • • Stop breathing Don Protective mask Give the alarm Continue the mission and wait for further orders. Assist others when the situation permits. Chemical Attack Actions • After Attack Actions – Remain in protective gear and continue your mission. – Give first aid to casualties in the immediate vicinity when the situation and mission permit. – Await the commander’s order for unmasking. Nuclear Attack Actions Pre-Attack Actions • Fighting Hole: – The deeper the fighting hole, the more protection it provides – An overhead covering of earth or other material will help reduce the amount of thermal and initial nuclear radiation and fallout material from reaching the individual. – Cover must be sturdy enough to withstand the blast wave. Nuclear Attack Actions Pre-Attack Actions • Field Shelters. Tunnels, caves, and storm drains provide effective shelter. Vehicles made of steel provide some protection. • Supplies and Equipment. Equipment and supplies not being worn should be placed in the fighting hole to prevent them from becoming missiles. Nuclear Attack Actions During Attack Actions • Drop Flat on Ground facedown or to the bottom of a fighting hole. • Close your eyes. • Protect exposed skin from heat by putting hands and arms near or under your body. Keep your helmets on. Nuclear Attack Actions Nuclear Attack Actions • Remain down until after the blast has passed and debris has stopped falling. • Stay calm, check for injury, check weapons and equipment for damage, and prepare to continue the mission. Nuclear Attack Actions • Nuclear Attack – Begin fallout monitoring – Bathe and change clothes as soon as possible – Avoid breathing dust (place handkerchief or similar cloth over mouth) – Remember run off water is contaminated CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.25 Discuss the following regarding the M-256 detection kit Types of agents detected Time required to complete test Reference: FM 3-3 CBR Warfare • Capable of detecting both liquid and vapor concentrations of chemical agents. • Detects chemical agents in the following concentrations: Nerve (G series; .005 mg/m3 VX; .02 mg/m3 within 15 minutes) Blister (H; 2mg/m3 12mg/m3 within 10 minutes) Blood (AC; 7 mg/m3 within 10 minutes) Issued at squad level Contains ABC-MS Chemical agent detector paper for liquids/samplers Causes OPSEC problems during hours of limited visibility A white light is needed to read both ABC-M8 paper and sampler/detector. • • • • CBR Warfare • PQS Question 111.26 Explain the proper steps for donning the JSLIST chemical protective ensemble • Reference: NAVEDTRA 12003, Seabee Combat Handbook, Volume1 Donning the JSLIST • Chemical Protective Undergarment. The CPU is a two-piece undergarment consisting of a formfitting undershirt and drawers. The CPU is not removed from its bag until it is needed for use. When the CPU is removed from its VB bag, its protective qualities last for a minimum of 15 days. The wear time for the CPU begins when it is removed from the VB bag. If the original bag is not available, use a replacement bag that, as a minimum, is water-resistant or water-repellent. The CPU can be laundered once for personal-hygiene purposes during its 15day use. It provides protection from CB agents (solid, liquid, and vapor) for up to a 12-hour period. The CPU also protects against radioactive alpha and beta particles. When worn under a duty uniform, the CPU has also shown enhanced flash fire protection capabilities. The CPU is generally used by SOF, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), technical escort, and depot personnel.