Biomes Foldable

Biomes Foldable
Large geographic areas that have
similar climates and ecosystems.
Include both land and aquatic
Land: Tundra, Taiga, Deciduous
forest, Tropical Rain Forest, Desert,
Aquatic: Freshwater, Marine, Estuary
Tundra – a cold, treeless region
Abiotic factors:
• precipitation – less than 25 cm per year
• Avg. temperature= -12°C
• Permafrost – permanently frozen soil.
Only the top few inches thaw in the
summer making it hard for large trees
to grow.
• Sunlight – experiences complete night
for 3 months of the year during winter.
Tundra – continued
Biotic Factors
• Plants: adapted to living in extreme cold
with little water
Ex: moss, lichens, grasses, small shrubs
• Animals: adapted to the cold – may
migrate or change color by season
Ex: migratory birds like duck, geese,
shorebirds, and songbirds. Also hawks,
snow owls, willow grouse, mice, voles,
lemmings, arctic hares, caribou, reindeer,
musk ox, mosquitoes, black flies, and other
biting insects.
Taiga – cold, forest region dominated
by cone-bearing evergreen trees.
Abiotic factors:
• Precipitation – 35cm to 100 cm a year
• Avg. temperatures: -50°C to 30°C
• Permafrost – only in extreme northern
• Sunlight – winter lasts for 5-6 months
with the sun barely rising over the
horizon during this time
Taiga - continued
Biotic Factors:
• Plant life – adapted to the cold and
short growing season
Ex: Conifers (evergreen trees), moss, lichen
• Animal life – adapted to cold
Ex: moose, lynx, shrews, bears, foxes
Deciduous Forest – temperate
forest with four distinct seasons
Abiotic Factors:
• Avg. precipitation: 75cm to 150 cm per
• Avg. temperature: 5.5°C to 15.6°C
• Sunlight: varying amounts of sunlight
causing 4 distinct seasons
Deciduous Forest: continued
Biotic Factors:
• Plant life – adapted to seasonal changes
in sunlight, water, and temperature
Ex: giant trees like oaks, maples, and birch
• Animal life – also adapted for each
season – may hibernate through winter
Ex: white-tail deer, bears, squirrels,
chipmunk, elk, mountain lion, bobcat,
raccoon, and skunk
Tropic Rain Forest – large forests
near the equator with warm, wet
weather and lush plant growth.
Abiotic factors:
• Avg. precipitation: 200 - 600 cm a year
• Avg. temperature: about 25°C year round
• Sunlight – amount of sunlight does NOT
change throughout the year, so its
summer all the time.
Tropical Rain Forest
Biotic factors
• Plant life – adapted to warm temps. and
large amounts of rain. Adaptations
include large broad leaves, deep roots,
or growing without soil
Ex: giant trees, vines, moss, orchids
• Animal life – adapted to live in trees, or
in the dark mud below, and for warm
Ex: large birds like parrots and macaws,
monkeys, primates, insects, reptiles,
Desert – large dry regions with
mostly thin sandy, or gravelly soil.
Abiotic factors:
• Avg. precipitation: less than 25 cm a year
• Avg. temperatures: 0°C to 45°C
• Soil – sandy, or gravelly, sand dunes are
• Sunlight – reaches the ground due to lack
of vegetation. Causes vary cold nights.
Desert - Continued
Biotic factors:
• Plant life: adapted to extreme dryness
and temperature changes. Leaves are
spiny to prevent water loss.
Ex: cactus, Joshua tree, creosote bush
• Animal life: adapted to survive with
very little water. Usually nocturnal
Ex: scorpions, kangaroo rat, snakes,
rabbits, birds, coyote
Grassland: temperate and tropical
regions with grass
Abiotic factors:
• Avg. precipitation: 25 to 75 cm per year
• Avg. temperature: -20°C to 30°C
• Sunlight – changes with the seasons
Grasslands: continued
Biotic factors:
• Plant life: must be adapted to survive a
dry season
Ex: grasses, wheat, rye, oats, barley, and
• Animal life: adapted to seasonal
changes in water and sunlight
Ex: zebras, elephants, giraffes, lions,
hawks, mice, insects, snakes
Freshwater: from small ponds and
streams to large rivers and lakes
Abiotic factors:
• The faster the water flows the more
oxygen the water contains
• Slower moving water like in ponds,
contains more nutrients
• Sunlight reaches no more than 200
meters down, so life is not found
beyond that point
Freshwater: continued
Biotic Factors:
• Plant life: abundant in slow moving
Ex: algae, aquatic plants like elodea, reeds,
rushes, cattails, water lilies, etc.
• Animal life: adapted to speed and
temperature of water
Ex: fish, snails, mussels, water snakes,
insects, amphibians, ducks, beaver, otters,
river dolphins
Marine: saltwater (95% of Earth’s
Abiotic factors:
• Below 200 meters organisms survive
without light using a process called
• Above 200 meters uses photosynthesis
• Water temperatures vary depending on
latitude, and depth
• Salinity changes with depth
Marine: continued
Biotic Factors:
• Plant and animals life must be adapted
to salinity, temperature, and amount of
sunlight available
• Plants: phytoplankton, algae, sea weed
• Animals: coral, sponges, sea stars, crab,
lobsters, fish, shark, whales, dolphins,
Estuary: areas where rivers meet
an ocean and the fresh and salty
water mix.
Abiotic factors:
• Salinity changes depending on amount
of fresh water flowing from rivers, and
incoming salt water from tides
Estuary: continued
Biotic factors:
• Plants and animals must be adapted to
continuously changing salt levels
• Plant life: algae, salt tolerant grasses,
• Animal life: shrimp, crab, clams,
oysters, snails, worms, fish, manatee
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