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Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Air Traffic Control.
Rules of the Air.
Chapter 1
Air Traffic Control.
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Air Traffic Control
The Air Traffic
Control Tower
houses the people
who monitor aircraft
on the ground and in
the air in the vicinity
of the airfield.
Air Traffic Control
The Airfield Controller
controls the movement
of both vehicles and
aircraft in the airfield’s
ground manoeuvring
area and aircraft in the
He (or she) works in a glass walled room at the top of
the control tower.
Air Traffic Control
Aircraft outside the
circuit, but within the
airfield’s area of
responsibility are
handled by the
Approach Controller.
They work from radar screens and control aircraft
departing and arriving, and those on instrument
Air Traffic Control
Other controllers
responsible for the safety
of aircraft flying
between airfields are
located at Air Traffic
Control Centres
(ATCC’s) or Air Traffic
Control Radar Units
Neither ATCC’s or
ATCRU’s are necessarily
located on airfields.
Air Traffic Control
Busy training airfields
often have a Runway
Controller near the
touchdown point. He will
check that landing gear
is down and look for
fluid leaks on departing
The runway controller works from a red and white
chequered caravan similar to the one in the picture.
Air Traffic Control
Good communication between airfield control towers,
ATCC’s and ATCRU’s are vital.
All are liked by telephone landlines known as the
Defence Fixed Telecommunication System (DFTS).
Air Traffic Control
Helicopter landing areas
are identified with a
large letter ‘H’.
Airfield Hazards – Obstruction Markers
Stationary hazards on
airfields are marked
with a yellow three-sided
solid mounted on a pole
with a round base.
Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground
At airfields where taxiing on the grass is permitted,
bad ground is identified by one of three methods:
Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground
A white canvas marker
with a red band.
Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground
A yellow and black
striped solid.
Airfield Hazards – Bad Ground
Yellow flags on light
Aviation Radio Aids
RADAR, which stands for
RAdio Detection And Ranging,
is a system of locating aircraft
by transmitting a pulse of
electromagnetic energy and
picking up the small ‘echo’
reflected back from the aircraft.
Aviation Radio Aids
DRDF stands for ‘Digital
Resolution Direction Finding’.
As a radio transmission is
received from an aircraft the
direction from which the signal
is received is displayed on a
cathode ray tube. This is passed
to the pilot as a course to steer
for the airfield.
Aviation Radio Aids
ILS stands for
Landing System.
Fixed transmitters
on the airfield send
out signals which
define a ‘pathway’
for the aircraft to
Aviation Radio Aids
The ILS signals
enable the pilot to
fly down the beam
until touchdown
without assistance
from the controller.
Aviation Radio Aids
Precision Approach Radar (PAR) gives the approach
controller a radar picture of the aircraft on final
approach. From this information he gives instructions
to the pilot to fly the correct glideslope and runway
centre line until touchdown.
For obvious reasons this procedure is called a
Ground Controlled Approach (GCA).
Airways and Controlled Airspace
Large airfields have
‘zones’ where air
traffic is strictly
controlled. These air
traffic control zones
are linked by aerial
pathways called
Airways and Controlled Airspace
Airways are between
10 and 20 nautical
miles wide.
The centre of the
airways are marked by
navigational beacons
so that aircraft can
route along them
Airways and Controlled Airspace
The requirements for
using an airway are:
1. The pilot must have a
valid instrument rating.
2. The aircraft is fitted
with appropriate radio
and navigational
3. The flight is made in
accordance with the
Joining and Crossing Airways
Radio contact with the
appropriate Air Traffic
Control Centre
(ATCC) must be made
before joining or
crossing an airway.
Crossing Airways
If the base of an
airway is above ground
level it is permissible to
fly underneath it.
Alternatively, a pilot
may fly through under
radar control from the
appropriate ATC
Radar Unit (ATCRU).
Chapter 2
Rules of the Air.
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Rights of Way
There are four main types of
Powered Conventional Aircraft.
Rights of Way
Balloons cannot be steered.
They cannot be
manoeuvred to avoid a
All other types of aircraft
must give way to them.
Rights of Way
Gliders are fairly
maneuverable but:
their airspeed is low and
they do not have engines.
Gliders have the right of
way over powered aircraft
and airships.
Rights of Way
Airships are slow but
They have the benefit of
engines to help them climb.
Airships must give way to
both gliders and balloons.
Rights of Way
Conventional powered
aircraft are by far the most
They must give way to
balloons, gliders and
Rights of Way
When two aircraft are
approaching head on:
each must alter course to
the right.
Rights of Way
When two aircraft are on
converging courses:
the aircraft which has the
other on its right must give
Rights of Way
An aircraft being
overtaken has right of way.
The one overtaking must
avoid the other by turning
Navigation Lights
At night aircraft carry
lights for identification.
A balloon carries one red
light below the basket.
Navigation Lights
Aircraft, gliders and
airships carry red, green
and white lights.
Red on the port wingtip,
green on the starboard and
white on the tail.
Avoiding Other Aircraft
Communicating accurately with other crew about
the location of other aircraft and hazards is
The ‘Clock Code’ system is recognised by all pilots.
Avoiding Other Aircraft
12 o’clock
Imagine a clock face
around the aircraft to
specify direction.
High, low or level will
further clarify the location
of the other aircraft as
above, below or at the
same height.
9 o’clock
3 o’clock
6 o’clock
Key Revision Topics
Chapters 1 and 2 completed.
This has been a
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