Basic First Aid

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Basic First Aid
Seizures/Convulsions
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Seizures: mild to severe
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brief blackouts, involuntary movements, sudden falls
periods of confused behavior
involuntary muscle contractions.
Grand Mal seizures
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uncontrollable muscle movements (jerking or spasms)
Rigidity
loss of consciousness
loss of bladder and/or bowel control
breathing that stops temporarily.
Seizures/Convulsions
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Stay with the person – consider calling 911
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Protect the person from injury
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Move all furniture or equipment that is nearby
Do not hold or restrain the person
Do not put anything in the person’s mouth
Loosen clothing
Roll the person on his/her side
After the seizure activity has stopped:
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Perform rescue breathing if person is blue or not breathing (if CPR
certified)
If breathing, lay person on side
FAINTING
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Pale, sweaty, slow pulse
Lay person on back with head to the side
and legs elevated
DO NOT give anything by mouth
If person doesn’t wake up right away, call
911
Choking
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Partial airway obstruction with good air
exchange
Forceful cough
 Wheezing in between breaths
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*Stay with the person and encourage them to
cough
Choking
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Partial airway obstruction with poor air
exchange
Weak, ineffective cough
 High-pitched noises while breathing
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* This type of obstruction should be dealt with as
if it were a complete obstruction
Choking
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Complete airway obstruction
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Unable to breathe, speak or cough
Clutching at his/her throat (universal distress
signal for choking)
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If the person is still conscious, perform
Heimlich maneuver
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If the person becomes unconscious, call 911
and continue helping if familiar with First
Aid/CPR
Heimlich Maneuver
Major Bleeding: Direct Pressure
 Use a sterile dressing or clean cloth
 Fold to form pad
 Apply pressure directly over wound
 Fasten with bandage; knot over wound
 If bleeding continues, add second
pressure dressing
Bleeding: Pressure Points
Apply pressure where artery lies near
skin over bone.
Bleeding: Pressure Points
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Use pressure point closest to wound,
between wound and heart
Superficial arteries: use flat surface of
several fingers
Femoral artery, use heel of one hand
Tourniquet
Absolute last resort
in controlling
bleeding:
Life or the limb
Once a
tourniquet is
applied, it is not
to be removed ,
only by a doctor
Cuts
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Apply pressure with a clean cloth, elevation
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Large and deep: seek medical attention
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Maintain pressure
Minor cuts
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Can be cleaned better when bleeding stops
Soap and water, peroxide
cover with antibiotic ointment and dressing.
If cut may need sutures, seek medical care as
soon as possible
Consider “Super Glue”
Works on People, Too!
Abrasions
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Must get wound clean
Hold pressure with or without
“numbing” medicine till bleeding stops
Clean wound with soap and water in 1 -2
hours
Wrap in dry bandage
Clean at least twice a day till healed
Puncture Wounds
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DO NOT remove large
objects such as knives or
sticks, call 911
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For minor wounds, wash
with soap and water
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Remove splinters?
Antibiotic ointment
Bandage
The person may need a
tetanus booster injection
Stinging Insects
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Remove the stinger with the scraping motion of a
fingernail
DO NOT pull the stinger out
Put a cold compress on the bite
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Hydrocortisone cream
Benadryl
Check for allergies
If hives, paleness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, tightness
in chest, breathing difficulty, or collapse occur, call 911.
For spider bites, call the Poison Control Center or
hospital
EpiPen
How to use an Epipen:
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Pull off gray safety cap.
Place black tip on thigh, at right angle to leg
Press hard into thigh until Auto-Injector
mechanism functions
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Hold in place for several seconds
The EpiPen unit should then be removed and
discarded
Massage the injection area for 10 seconds.
Blisters
Leave intact
 Puncture under clean conditions
 Cleanse area, hands, needle
 Puncture near edge
 Antibiotic ointment and bandage
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EYE Injuries
DON’T RUB!!!
 Wash out (chemicals, dirt)
 Patch or compress or keep closed
 Send the person directly to an
emergency room.
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NOSEBLEEDS
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With person sitting,
squeeze nostrils
together between
thumb and index
finger for 10 minutes
Ice on forehead
If bleeding persists,
seek medical
attention– but
maintain pressure
TEETH
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If knocked out, find the tooth and rinse it gently
without touching the root
Insert and gently hold the tooth in its socket or
transport the tooth in cow’s milk
If broken, save the pieces. Gently clean the
injured area with warm water. Place a cold
compress to reduce swelling.
Send the person directly to the dentist or an
emergency room. Time is important!
Major Fractures
 Other
injuries – major accident
 Broken skin, major deformity
 Heavy
bleeding
 Loss of circulation
 Neck,
head, hip, pelvis, upper leg
Major Fractures
 Stop
any bleeding
 Immobilize
 Splint
 Don’t
 Treat
try to re-align
for shock
 Head
down
 Legs up?
Dislocations
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Don't delay medical care
Don't move the joint
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Nerves, blood vessels and ligaments
Put ice on the injured joint
Fractures and Sprains: PRICE
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P-- protect the injured limb from further
injury by not using the joint
R-- rest the injured limb
I-- ice the area
C-- compress the area with an elastic wrap
or bandage
E-- elevate the injured limb whenever
possible to help prevent or limit swelling
Sunburn
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Avoidance
 Cover up: hats, sleeves
 Sunscreen
Cool bath or shower
Leave blisters intact
Tylenol, Advil, Solarcaine
Heat Illness
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AVOID The Problem
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DRINK even if not “thirsty”
Lots of
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Heat Cramps: rest, cool down, DRINK
Heat Exhaustion = threatened Heatstroke
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clear urine
Nausea, faint
Pale, clammy & cool
Give fluids, active cooling
Heatstroke  Call 911
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Hot, shock, unconscious
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