AIR FRAME

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SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT”
SL.NO
CODE
SUBJECT
1st
YEAR
2nd
YEAR
TOTAL
PERIOD
1.
INS-1 Purpose
1
NIL
1
2.
INS-2 Pressure
Instrument
INS-3 Compass, TSI and
Artificial Horizon
2
NIL
2
1
1
2
INS-4 Definitions
1
NIL
1
3.
4.
SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT”
5.
INS-5 Principle of
NIL
Pressure Instrument
1
1
6.
INS-6 Engine Instrument
NIL
1
1
7.
INS-7 Variometer
NIL
1
1
5
4
9
TOTAL
INSTRUMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The standard flight panel comprises the following
basic Instruments :





1. Air Speed Indicator (ASI)
2. Altimeter
3. Artificial Horizon
4. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and Rate of
Climb/Descent Indicator (RCDI)
5. Compass
6. Turn and Slip Indicator (TSI)
Cont’d
FLIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL

AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI)

PURPOSE:-
It
is
used
to
indicate the speed at
which the aircraft is
moving
air.
through
the
AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI)

It registers the speed of the air
striking the aircraft from reading of
Dynamic Pressure registered by the
Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated
Air Speed (IAS) which varies
substantially with differences in
Altitude and Temperature.
AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI)
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“Differential
Pressure
Dynamic and Static Pressure”
between
ALTIMETER

PURPOSE:-
It is used to indicate the altitude of
the aircraft at all times.
It registers height above any datum
like ground or sea level in terms of
meters.
Cont’d
ALTIMETER

PRINCIPLE :It is work on the
Principle of “ANEROID
CAPSULE”.
ALTIMETER
 PRINCIPLE
OF OPERATION:-
The capsule is fitted inside the
airtight case. Static Pressure from
Pitot Head is fed inside the case. When
pressure inside the case decrease the
flexible aneroid capsule expand and
vise versa.
Cont’d
ALTIMETER
 PRINCIPLE
OF OPERATION:-
Expansion and compression of
capsule due to variation in Pressure as
a mechanical movement is made use
of to deflect the pointer over the Dial
through sector and gears to indicate
altitude of the aircraft.
ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“GYROSCOPE”
ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE

PURPOSE :It is used to indicate continuous attitude
of the aircraft in respect of the natural
Horizon (In the lateral and longitudinal
axis).
It can also make out if the aircraft is
flying level and straight flight.
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR
(VSI)
VSI DISPLAYS
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR
(VSI)
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to indicate the
vertical speed of the aircraft in
terms of thousand of feet or
meters per minute.
RATE OF CLIMB/DESCENT
INDICATOR(RCDI)
 PURPOSE:-
It is mainly used in climbing or
descending at specified rate to ensure
arrival at a predetermined level or let
down through cloud or an instrument
landing.
Cont’d
VSI/RCDI
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of “
Pressure Tapped from and in
conjunction
with
ASI
and
Altimeter”.
COMPASS

PURPOSE:-
It is used to give continuous
indication of the aircraft heading.
In order to ensure correct
navigation, the aircraft is provided
with a compass.
COMPASS
 PRINCIPLE:-
The magnetic compass works
on the principle of “MAGNETIC
NORTH SEEKING”.
TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR
(TSI)

PURPOSE:-
It is used to
indicate to the Pilot
the movement of the
aircraft in rolling
and yawing planes.
Cont’d
TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR
(TSI)
It consists of two
separate instruments
contained
in
one
case.
(1) Turn Indicator
(2) Slip Indicator
TURN INDICATOR
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to indicate the rate of
turn, either left or right, about the
vertical axis of the aircraft.
TURN INDICATOR
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“GYROSCOPIC”.
Cont’d
SLIP INDICATOR
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to indicate lateral
level while the aircraft is in
straight and level flight and the
amount of slip and skid when the
aircraft is turning.
SLIP INDICATOR
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“PENDULUM”.
PITOT HEAD

PURPOSE:-
This system is used to respond to
the dynamic and static pressure
during the flight and supply these
pressure
to
the
aneroid
cell
instrument for their function.
Cont’d
DYNAMIC PRESSURE
 PURPOSE:-
It is produced by the forward
motion of the aircraft to operate
various
pressure
operated
Instrument like ASI, Mach meter
etc.
STATIC PRESSURE
 PURPOSE:-
It is the atmospheric pressure
picked up from surrounding air,
when aircraft in motion.
OR
STATIC PRESSURE

PURPOSE:-
It is still pressure surrounding the
aircraft in while in motion. It is fed
through static vents to operate the
suction operated instrument like –
ASI, Altimeter, Mach meter etc.
ENGINE PERFORMANCE
INSTRUMENT SYSTEM
 INTRODUCTION:-
Engine
instrument
are
continuously
monitoring
the
performances of the aircraft
engine during flying or ground
run.
ENGINE PERFORMANCE
INSTRUMENT SYSTEM
The Engine performance instruments
are as follows:



1. Engine RPM measuring system
2. Fuel flow Indicator & Transmitter
3. Oil pressure Indicator & Transmitter
Cont’d
ENGINE RPM MEASURING
SYSTEM

PURPOSE OF TACHO INDICATOR:-
This system is used for providing
continuous indication of RPM of low
&high pressure (Engine) rotor shaft to
the Pilot in terms of percentage with in
the range of 0 to 110%.
Cont’d
TACHO INDICATOR

PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“MAGNETIC INDUCTION”.
Cont’d
TACHO GENERATOR

PURPOSE:-
It is used to generate three phase
AC voltage, whose frequency is
proportional to the engine compressor
shaft RPM and is fed to the
Tachometer.
Cont’d
FUEL FLOW INDICATOR
 PURPOSE
:-
It is used to provide continuous
indication of the fuel quantity
remained in the aircraft fuel tanks.
Cont’d
FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to generate the electrical
pulses proportional to the quantity of
fuel passed through it.
FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“PULSE INDUCTION”.
Cont’d
OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to provide continuous
indication of the pressure in
engine lubricating system to the
Pilot.
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
 PURPOSE:-
It is used to provide electrical
signal
proportional
to
the
pressure
in
the
lubricating
system.
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
 PRINCIPLE:-
It is work on the Principle of
“MAGNETIC INDUCTION”.
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