SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT” SL.NO CODE SUBJECT 1st YEAR 2nd YEAR TOTAL PERIOD 1. INS-1 Purpose 1 NIL 1 2. INS-2 Pressure Instrument INS-3 Compass, TSI and Artificial Horizon 2 NIL 2 1 1 2 INS-4 Definitions 1 NIL 1 3. 4. SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT” 5. INS-5 Principle of NIL Pressure Instrument 1 1 6. INS-6 Engine Instrument NIL 1 1 7. INS-7 Variometer NIL 1 1 5 4 9 TOTAL INSTRUMENT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS The standard flight panel comprises the following basic Instruments : 1. Air Speed Indicator (ASI) 2. Altimeter 3. Artificial Horizon 4. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and Rate of Climb/Descent Indicator (RCDI) 5. Compass 6. Turn and Slip Indicator (TSI) Cont’d FLIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI) PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate the speed at which the aircraft is moving air. through the AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI) It registers the speed of the air striking the aircraft from reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature. AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI) PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “Differential Pressure Dynamic and Static Pressure” between ALTIMETER PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate the altitude of the aircraft at all times. It registers height above any datum like ground or sea level in terms of meters. Cont’d ALTIMETER PRINCIPLE :It is work on the Principle of “ANEROID CAPSULE”. ALTIMETER PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:- The capsule is fitted inside the airtight case. Static Pressure from Pitot Head is fed inside the case. When pressure inside the case decrease the flexible aneroid capsule expand and vise versa. Cont’d ALTIMETER PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:- Expansion and compression of capsule due to variation in Pressure as a mechanical movement is made use of to deflect the pointer over the Dial through sector and gears to indicate altitude of the aircraft. ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “GYROSCOPE” ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE PURPOSE :It is used to indicate continuous attitude of the aircraft in respect of the natural Horizon (In the lateral and longitudinal axis). It can also make out if the aircraft is flying level and straight flight. VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI) VSI DISPLAYS VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI) PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate the vertical speed of the aircraft in terms of thousand of feet or meters per minute. RATE OF CLIMB/DESCENT INDICATOR(RCDI) PURPOSE:- It is mainly used in climbing or descending at specified rate to ensure arrival at a predetermined level or let down through cloud or an instrument landing. Cont’d VSI/RCDI PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “ Pressure Tapped from and in conjunction with ASI and Altimeter”. COMPASS PURPOSE:- It is used to give continuous indication of the aircraft heading. In order to ensure correct navigation, the aircraft is provided with a compass. COMPASS PRINCIPLE:- The magnetic compass works on the principle of “MAGNETIC NORTH SEEKING”. TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR (TSI) PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate to the Pilot the movement of the aircraft in rolling and yawing planes. Cont’d TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR (TSI) It consists of two separate instruments contained in one case. (1) Turn Indicator (2) Slip Indicator TURN INDICATOR PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate the rate of turn, either left or right, about the vertical axis of the aircraft. TURN INDICATOR PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “GYROSCOPIC”. Cont’d SLIP INDICATOR PURPOSE:- It is used to indicate lateral level while the aircraft is in straight and level flight and the amount of slip and skid when the aircraft is turning. SLIP INDICATOR PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “PENDULUM”. PITOT HEAD PURPOSE:- This system is used to respond to the dynamic and static pressure during the flight and supply these pressure to the aneroid cell instrument for their function. Cont’d DYNAMIC PRESSURE PURPOSE:- It is produced by the forward motion of the aircraft to operate various pressure operated Instrument like ASI, Mach meter etc. STATIC PRESSURE PURPOSE:- It is the atmospheric pressure picked up from surrounding air, when aircraft in motion. OR STATIC PRESSURE PURPOSE:- It is still pressure surrounding the aircraft in while in motion. It is fed through static vents to operate the suction operated instrument like – ASI, Altimeter, Mach meter etc. ENGINE PERFORMANCE INSTRUMENT SYSTEM INTRODUCTION:- Engine instrument are continuously monitoring the performances of the aircraft engine during flying or ground run. ENGINE PERFORMANCE INSTRUMENT SYSTEM The Engine performance instruments are as follows: 1. Engine RPM measuring system 2. Fuel flow Indicator & Transmitter 3. Oil pressure Indicator & Transmitter Cont’d ENGINE RPM MEASURING SYSTEM PURPOSE OF TACHO INDICATOR:- This system is used for providing continuous indication of RPM of low &high pressure (Engine) rotor shaft to the Pilot in terms of percentage with in the range of 0 to 110%. Cont’d TACHO INDICATOR PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “MAGNETIC INDUCTION”. Cont’d TACHO GENERATOR PURPOSE:- It is used to generate three phase AC voltage, whose frequency is proportional to the engine compressor shaft RPM and is fed to the Tachometer. Cont’d FUEL FLOW INDICATOR PURPOSE :- It is used to provide continuous indication of the fuel quantity remained in the aircraft fuel tanks. Cont’d FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER PURPOSE:- It is used to generate the electrical pulses proportional to the quantity of fuel passed through it. FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “PULSE INDUCTION”. Cont’d OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR PURPOSE:- It is used to provide continuous indication of the pressure in engine lubricating system to the Pilot. OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER PURPOSE:- It is used to provide electrical signal proportional to the pressure in the lubricating system. OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER PRINCIPLE:- It is work on the Principle of “MAGNETIC INDUCTION”.