WWI PowerPoint (as of 12.4) wwi_presentation_14.2_2

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• K-What do you know
(or think you know)
– Who fought, who won,
where fought, famous
people, types of
weapons, movies, etc.
• W-What do you want
to learn (do not say
“nothing….history is
stoooooopid”)
• L-What I learnedLeave blank for now
KWL-WWI
“The war to end all wars”
“The war to end all wars”
The United States?
1st neutrality ….
• then declaring war,
• exposure to trench
warfare
• shell shock &
• finally…”victory”
Before we get started….let’s look at the
world in 1914
• Map Directions(assignment #2):
– Neatly label the countries horizontally on your
map. (use pg. 214 of American Odyssey)
– Create a key that distinguishes all Central Powers,
Allied Powers & neutral nations. Also note, the
original Triple Entente countries and the two
main Central Powers (use a * or other symbol)
– Label all major bodies of water & area of German
submarine warfare
– Due: All assignments are due at the end of the unit.
However, Mr. B may give a short quizzes along the
way to check for understanding
Objectives (all notes = #1 in packet)
pgs. 213-236 if you need textbook help
• Summarize events that caused the Great War
(WWI).
• Describe the US struggle to remain neutral
during WWI.
• Explain the US decision to abandon neutrality
and enter the war in 1917.
• Describe US military participation in WWI.
• Discuss the negative effect the war had on civil
liberties. (Our personal freedoms)
Map of Europe: On the eve of WWI
Arms race
• Britain had the upper hand.
• Kaiser Wilhelm II of
Germany wanted to be a
global power, not just a
European power.
(imperialism)
– Builds up his own navy,
army & munitions
How it started-The causes
• Many Serbians resented being
part of the empire. (Nationalism)
• June 1914: Assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand &
his wife, Sophie, heir to the
Austro-Hungarian throne, in
Sarajevo, Bosnia.
• Gavrilo Princip, assassin
• Short video explanation
– Watch until 5:30
• A-H gives list of demands to
Serbia.>>A-H declares war on
Serbia.
The Century Video Series
-Shell Shock (1914-1919)
• Take notes that address:
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Countries that have alliances w/ one another
Impact of the Lusitania’s sinking
The event that sparked/started WWI
Propaganda: How the US views Germans
Impact WWI had on the neutral US
economy during the war’s early years.
How WWI impacted immigration to the US Watch all of pt. 1 & to 10:41 on pt 2
African-American population
Pay close attention to the conditions of trench
warfare as soldiers tell their stories
How quickly did the soldiers “gain” ground?
Describe the industrialization of war.
– Watch Pt. 1 on T. 11.18
How did it turn into a bigger war?
• A series of alliances!!
• A-H was an ally with G.
• Serbia was allied with
Russia
• Czar Nicholas II (Russia)
prepared troops to defend
Serbia.
• G. demanded that R.
halt war preparations.
R. refused!
• G. declares war on R.
• R. is allies with France
– Wanted valuable land back
• Then, G. declares war on
Fr.
Review of causes
• Imperialism: Germany struggles to expand it’s empire. Battle
of the “haves” vs. the “have nots.”
– Having colonies in Africa & the Pacific>> not good enough
– Be more like France, Britain and Russia
– Italy joins Allied side (1915) >>>promised more colonies
• Originally was on the Central Powers.
• Nationalism: strong feeling to self govern.
– Smaller nations want independence or free from
oppression.
– Not just in the Balkans
• System of alliances
– Increase strength by increasing # of allies (friends)
• Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
German’s Schlieffen Plan
• “You will be home before
the leaves have fallen
from the trees.”
– Kaiser Wilhelm II
• 90% of Germany's
armed forces (~ 1.5 M)
to attack France
• Goal: Force Fr. to
surrender before Russia
was ready to use all its
forces. Then hit the
Eastern Front.
• Unsuccessful
British newspapers intensify
anger (propaganda)
• G. demanded free passage thru
Belgium to attack Fr.
• B. refuses. B. is an ally of Great
Britain. Thus, Britain enters war.
• Printed horror stories of
German’s treatment of the
Belgians.
– Tortured, stabbed w/bayonets
– “Rape of Belgium”
• Compared them to hordes of
Huns who had swarmed through
Europe during the Middle Ages
1st Battle of the Marne(Sept. ‘14)
• Germans go SW toward Paris.
• G. propaganda leaflets dropped
– “There is nothing you can do but
surrender.”
• G. crossed Marne R.>>Fr.
Counterattack
• 7 days, Fr. used 1200 taxi cabs to
bring in reinforcements
• G. pulled back, dug ditches, machine
guns>>>**Trench warfare begins**
• France=250K casualties, British=12K
• Germans=250K casualties
• Allied victory. Paris saved! NO short
war in sight!
• A British lieutenant recalled, “ We lay
under….shellfire for three hours and I think
that none of us will ever forget the feeling
of thinking that the next moment we might
be dead—perhaps blown to atoms.”
Taxi cabs used
In the trenches
• Simple at first; learned to
modify
• Reinforced walls to prevent
collapsing
• Days quieter
– Rest, read, write, art, chat
• Most attacks dawn and dusk
• Scene from All Quiet…
Trench warfare
• Western Front
– Waterlogged
– Problems
• Trench foot
• feet would gradually go
numb and the skin
would turn red or blue.
• gangrenous and result
in amputation
• 20,000 men
• Tx: dry socks several
times a day
Trench warfare
• Western Front
– Waterlogged
– Problem #2
• Dysentery
• inflammation of the lining
of the large intestines
• stomach pains and
diarrhea
• lose important salts and
fluids from the body
• can be fatal-dehydrated
Trench warfare
• Western Front
– Waterlogged
– Problem #3
• Trench rats
• One pair of rats can produce
880 offspring/year
• One soldier wrote: "The rats
were huge. They were so big
they would eat a wounded
man if he couldn't defend
himself."
• See example in All Quiet On
the Western Front scene
Trench warfare
• Western Front
– Waterlogged
– Problem #4
• Lice “cooties”
• frenzied scratching, lice
also carried disease
• symptoms were shooting
pains in the shins and a
very high fever
• 15% of all Brit. Sickness
• Scene in All Quiet…
Christmas Truce
• Christmas Eve, 1914
• Can you believe enemies
ceased their firing for a
truce and celebrate the
Lord?
• Reading (assignment #3)
– Active reading w/CM
– 1 paragraph reaction
• First hand account
– Start at :27-
• Joyeux Noel (2005)
– Academy Award nominated
Turn and share
• Quick reaction
• Questions you had
• Could it ever occur again? Two warring
sides putting down their weapons
New technology #1: Gas warfare
(review from video clip)
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Who? Germany
What? Chlorine gas
When? April, 1915
Where? Ypres, Belgium
(“eep-ra” or “eep-er”)
• Whom(against)? French
– Or did the French use it first?
•
•
•
•
yellow-green clouds
pineapple/pepper smell
weather conditions
Ypres: 1, 2
Death by gas
• Slow death by
asphyxiation (suffocated)
• Early defense:
– cotton pads soaked in urine
– Baking soda
• gas masks & respirators
Another gas-Mustard gas
• Germans in Sept.’17 against
Russians
• almost odorless
• Protection was more difficult
• Symptoms:
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–
–
–
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Skin blistered
Very sore eyes
Vomit
internal & external bleeding
Extremely painful and most
soldiers had to be strapped
their beds
– More debilitating than fatal
Mustard gas remained in soil for weeks!
• Why would that be an issue?
– It made capturing “infected” trenches dangerous.
Statistics
Overall: 1.2 M non-fatal injuries ~100,000 deaths due to poison gases
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Country
Austria-Hungary
British Empire
France
Germany
Italy
Russia
USA
Others
Total Casualties Deaths
100,000
3,000
188,706
8,109
190,000
8,000
200,000
9,000
60,000
4,627
419,340
56,000
72,807
1,462
10,000
1,000
One who survived…..oh how
history could have been different
• Infamous person
injured…..Adolf Hitler 
All Quiet on the Western Front
excerpt (pp 60-65) + video clip
New Technology #2: Zeppelins
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•
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•
•
German invention
1st bombed in May, 1915
60 mph
Hydrogen fuel
By end of the war,
Germany scrapped the
zeppelin due to improved
British anti-aircraft
defense
• Result? Early success but
not a huge factor.
• Victory for allies
(Flyboys)
New technology # 3: Big Bertha
• Mobile howitzer
– German
– 420 mm, 2,200 lb shell
– 1st used in Belgium
during Schlieffen Plan
• Range
– 7-9 miles
New Technology #4: Tanks
• Battle of the Somme
– September, 1916
– British
– Location: N. France
• Very few, little impact
• Symbolized the futility of trench
warfare
Losses:
Br. Lost: 420K men,
Fr. Lost: 200K men
Germany 500K
– Result? 6 months, slight Allied
victory. Gained ~ 5 miles
6:47- 10:40
New technology #5-Airplanes
• Short range
– Photographic surveillance
– Artillery spotting
– Very small bombs at first
New technology #5-Airplanes
• Longer range develops
– Mounted machine guns
• By the war's end, the impact
of air missions on the ground
war was in retrospect mainly
tactical – strategic bombing, in
particular, was still very
rudimentary indeed
Dogfight
Red Baron
• Manfred von Richthofen
– Ace of aces
•
•
•
•
German pilot
80 air combat victories
Trailer (movie)
US ace=Eddie Rickenbacher
Eddie Rickenbacker -war hero
• America’s “Ace of Aces”
• Battle for air supremacy
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjSE0BUyudw
Shell shock (1917)
• Symptoms included:
– diarrhea
– shaking
– anxiety
– insomnia
– stomach cramps
– nightmares
– Impact: 80% of British men
were never able to return to
military duty
Not for the those with sensitive stomachs
(optional viewing)
• Gruesome video
• Heavily wounded
w/serious face injuries.
PTSD today
Rise in PTSD cases from
two wars strains resources
-USA Today (2011)
Since the Iraq and Afghanistan wars began,
211,819 combat veterans have been treated
by the VA for PTSD.
WWI poetry
(11.26.14)
• History
– Lt. Colonel John
McCrae believed
to have written it
May 1915 after
witnessing the
death of a soldier.
– The reason why
veterans wear red
poppies on
Veteran’s Day
• In popular culture
• Activity: Write a short
poem/haiku
US entry into The Great War
• From US neutrality to war
• 4 reasons we entered the
war
Reason #1 US contributions to the
Allies
• Before the war, US traded
w/both sides; more w/Allies
• US received news about
Rape of Belgium
• By 1917, Allied loans=$2
billion
– Pay back w/interest
– Buy our munitions
– Ensure our loans will be
repaid
Reason #2. Sinking of Lusitania (1915)
• Germans declare unrestricted
warfare using U Boat
– Reaction to British blockade>>starve the
Germans
• Sinks in 18 minutes
– 1200 die incl. 128 US citizens
• Why sink “passenger” ship?
– Secretly carried weapons
• Reaction? OUTRAGE!
• Reenactment
Wilson’s reelection & US
closer to war
• Slogan: “He kept us out
of war!”
• Huge US investments
• Wilson wanted to be
part of peace talks
– Later 14 Points
Reason #3: Zimmerman
Telegram (note)
• Feb. 1917
• Germans offers
Mexico lands lost if
they’d ally with
Germany & declare
war on US
• British intercepts
Reason #4: Unrestricted submarine warfare
• US not truly neutral
• Sinking of US supply ship,
Illinois (Mar. 1917)
America joins the Allies
April 2, 1917-Wilson asks
Congress WAR!
• Financing?
– Wilson raised income tax
– Liberty Bond campaign
– “ A man who can’t lend his
government $1.25/week at the
rate of 4% interest is not
entitled to be an American
citizen.”
• Sec. of Treasury, McAdoo
Posters advertising Liberty Bonds were
designed to evoke patriotic emotions.
This was most often accomplished using the
image of Lady Liberty placed amid a battle scene
Drafting an army
• Conscription=mandatory military service
– Public opinion mixed-controversial
• Registration
– Men ages 21-30, later 18-45
– Lottery
– 11,000 women volunteered
• Nurses
• Clerical work
• Telephone operators
Segregating African-Americans
• NAACP demanded
blacks to be officers
• Some integrated w/
French troops
• This tolerance led to
more discontent
back home.
Fighting “Over there”
• American Expedition Force
(AEF)
– General John Pershing
• Allies needed men, Spring
of 1917 Allies lost 1 M men
• Doughboys= AEF soldiers
– Cake baked for sailors
• Lacked experience
• provided courage and “pep.”
Watch and listen 
War Letters (#4)
•
•
•
•
See criteria
Due W. 12/3
40 packet points
Individual work
– Some time M-Tues
• Partner up on Wednesday
1917 Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution
• Summarize what occurred
within your notes.
• Why was this significant?
• Shell Shock (10:41—14:45)
Timeline of events
• Food riot Czar Nicholas removed
• Provisional govt. continued war
• V. Lenin & Bolsheviks
– Meet needs of working class
– Goal: Establish 1st communist state
– “Peace, Land, and Bread”
• Oct 1917-Lenin leads overthrow of provisional government
• Result: Bolsheviks take power, withdraw from WWI
– Russia signs armistice with Germany
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918
– Germany sends ALL troops to Western Front.
– One allied power gone BUT the US had entered
– Bolshevism frightened world leaders. Could it spread?
2nd Battle of the Marne
(Jul-Aug.1918)
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Last major German offensive of WWI- Allied victory
G. hoped to split the Fr. forces in two >>weaken them
Brits, Italy & US assist + lg # of tanks
High casualties for Germans (~160K) & French (~90K)
• Watch Shell Shock
• “War of movement” finally
arrives
On the Home Front-Propaganda
How you and I could help!
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“Food will win the war” “Use all leftovers”
Victory gardens
“Wheatless” & “meatless” days
“Unity, cooperation & conformity.”
Emotion & peer pressure
Women & children worked fields to raise food
Home Front attitude: “Hate the Hun!”
• German composers & musicians
banned from symphonies
• German dropped from HS curriculum
• German Measles  Liberty Measles
• Hamburger  Liberty Sandwich
• Sauerkraut  Liberty Cabbage
• Many wartime attacks on citizens of
German descent.
– lynching of Robert Prager (read)
– “Get the Rope!” Anti-German
Violence in World War I (enrichment)
Home Front: Songs from WWI
(enrichment)
• K-K-K-Katy
• The Last Long Mile
• We're All Going Calling on
the Kaiser (lyrics)
Song 
Home Front: Cooperation of labor
• Gompers and the AFL support war
– Work together for better wages & hours
• Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
opposed the war
– “War only benefits big business”
• Suffragists oppose war
– Wilson talks of democracy?
– Women still cannot vote!
– Women will protest Pres. Wilson & the War
• Seen as unpatriotic. Got beat up. 
Home Front: War & Civil Liberties
(Save for next week)
• Anti-War sentiment grows & government
responds
• Espionage & Sedition Acts
– Prevent spying but also…
– criminalized inciting or attempting to incite any mutiny,
desertion, or refusal of duty in the armed forces,
• $10,000, up to 20 years or both
– interfering w/sales of war bonds
– using disloyal language (Hmm 1st amendment)
– Newspapers & magazines found guilty of criticism would
lose mailing privileges (1st Am..-freedom of the press?)
– 1600 arrested
– Most loyal Americans disagreed w/the Acts
Cowardice
• Describe a coward in
your own words.
• Give an example of
cowardice
Conviction
• Defined as “a firmly held belief or opinion.”
• Take a minute to think about your
convictions.
Back on the Home Front: Pacifism in WWI
• Pacifism= the refusal to take up arms or participate in
war because of moral or religious beliefs.
• As you read, remind yourself of the difference
between cowardice & conviction
• Actively read pp 226-229 (3-4 CM/page)
– Separate sheet of paper (identify paragraph #)
• Answer the questions in complete answers
• Discussion scheduled for _____________
Other examples
• We were cursed, beaten, kicked,
and compelled to go through
exercises to the extent that a few
were unconscious for some
minutes. They kept it up for the
greater part of the afternoon, and
then those who could possibly
stand on their feet were compelled
to take cold shower baths. One of
the boys was scrubbed with a
scrubbing brush using lye on him.
They drew blood in several places.
– Mennonite from Camp Lee, Virginia,
United States, 16 July 1918
1918 Influenza
• “Spanish flu”
• More die than during the
Great War
• Over 600K Americans
die, 10x more than in
combat
• 20-30 M globally
Look how quickly it moved!
Influenza 1918 (assignment #5)
Task: Take notes in order to
answer the questions on your
worksheet:
** Due with the rest of your
packet on/around Dec. 11th**
Video 
In Seattle (reading)
Wilson’s 14 Points (Jan 1918)
• Speech given to US Congress & 60
million leaflets dropped in Europe
• Sign peace treaty would ensure:
* Equality of trade; no harsh reprisals.
• Penalties not “super duper” severe for
Germany
* Readjusted borders. (see map)
* Freedom of ocean travel and trade
* No secret pacts and arms reduction
* League of Nations (international
body to help resolve conflicts)
• Goals:
– 1. Bond ALL nations together
– 2. Peace for all time
The Full 14 Points
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1. No more secret agreements
2. Free navigation of all seas.
3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.
4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.
5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial
6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her
own political set-up.
7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.
8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine
9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "along clearly
recognizable lines of nationality."
10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.
11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan
states.
12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the
old Turkish Empire should govern themselves.
13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.
14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial
independence of all states.
Reaction to the 14 Points
• Most European nations were excited
about the 14 Points.
• France was concerned that the
damage caused by Germany would
be ignored or minimized. FRANCE
WANTS GERMANY PUNISHED!
• Britain’s Prime Minister did not want
to give up control of the seas.
After 4.5 years (18 months for the US), war is over!
• 11th hour of 11th day of the
11th month in 1918, The
Great War ends. Yippee!
• Armistice signed
• Treaty of Versailles (1919)
– Germany gets hit hard!!
– This feeling of anger leads
Germany to be ready for a
leader like Hitler and
then>>>to WWII.
• Show video, Shell Shock,
5:50 to the end
Wilson’s 14 Points @ Paris Peace Conference
• Post war discussions at
Versailles:
– Wilson’s 14 Pts. begin to fade.
Wilson’s health declines too.
– Britain & France refuse to give
up their colonies
– Negotiations included The Big 4
US, Britain, France & Italy
• no Germany or Russia!
• Good explanation (for review)
– Acronym BRAT
– Germany’s reaction to the treaty
Treaty of Versailles (just some of the terms)
Most of Wilson’s 14 points vanished but not the League of
Nations
• Alsace-Lorraine went to France, (valuable coal territory)
• Germany gives land to Belgium,
• W. Prussia & the province of Posen to Poland,
• Germans pay $56 B to France>>>Will bankrupt Germany
• The loss of territory amounted to 25,000
square miles with a population of 6 million
• This “stiff penalty” will be a major
reason for World War Two
Italy feels snubbed 
• Italy felt it deserved some of
the land from Austria-Hungary
that went to a new countryYugoslavia
• As a result, Italy would turn to
Benito Mussolini, who vowed
to avenge the humiliation. Why
important?
– Mussolini will ally with Hitler in
WWII
Europe 1914
The reshaping of Europe
Armenian Massacre
(if absent, read the link)
• Listen to Mr. B’s short reading about how
1.5 million died of genocide
• Watch 5 minute clip and PBS trailer
• Exit Task: Write a one paragraph summary
of what was learned
What have we learned?
• It was NOT the war to end all wars.
• Wilson’s vision, had it been followed by our
allies, may have had a positive impact on the
world.
• A generation of men were lost.
• Many new weapons were used
• Did any nation “win?”
• Europe was reshaped with many new nations
emerging.
The changing map
• Good review (video)
– use this for test
preparation
The reshaping of Europe
19th Amendment (assignment #__)
• Overview: Read pp 7578 in your packet and
do the questions (1-6)
• Read the synopsis to
Iron Jawed Angels and
take notes that will help
you prepare for the
Discussion Board
activity next week.
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