…the problem and some proposed solutions. polywellnuclearfusion.com William W Flint, Port Angeles, WA [email protected] • Nuclear Cert B-52 Combat Crew 65-68 • Institutes in Nuclear & Chemical Instrumentation, Physics, and Chemistry at Montana, Wisconsin, and Kansas State Universities 1969-1973 • MEd in Physical Science WWU 1976 • Physics, Chemistry, Math Teacher at Port Angeles, Sedro-Woolley, and Crescent High Schools 1968-2010. Globally, we humans use 15,000,000,000,000 watt-hrs of energy every hour 24-7 that’s enough to light 150 billion 100 watt light bulbs year-around more than 21 light bulbs for EACH of the nearly 7 billion people on planet Earth 86% of those 15,000,000,000,000 watt-hours come from carbon fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas). All 3 produce carbon dioxide when they are burned. 86% of civilization’s energy comes from carbon-based fuel: Only 14% is NOT carbon-based. But our use of carbon fuels has serious consequences: …serious consequences: Dependence on Rogue States Since 9-11 there has been a limitless stream of cash flowing from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar to terrorist organizations. NYT Dec 9, 2010 Iran has threatened Israel with annihilation from 2005 to 2010. They have had an aggressive nuclear weapons program for more than 10 years. Chavez of Venezuela funds FARC Columbian rebels, threatens to cut off oil sales to the United States, and meets often with Iranian leaders. Before he was killed, Qaddafi of Libya committed numerous atrocities, such as blowing up Pan Am flight 103 over Scotland, killing 295. …serious consequences: Dependence on Rogue States. …serious consequences: Such as Disappearing Resources. In 1956, M. King Hubbert told a meeting of the American Petroleum Institute that the crude oil (petroleum) production of the United States would reach its peak, and start to go downhill in 1970. This is exactly what happened. Changes in Carbon Fuel Production are Very Predictable. …serious consequences: Disappearing Resources. Texas Oil Production Texas Gas Production Changes in Carbon Fuel Production are Very Predictable. …serious consequences: Disappearing Resources. Changes in Carbon Fuel Production are Very Predictable. Regional Oil Production World Oil Production Think of the Chaos when the oil and gas are gone! …serious consequences: Such as the Exxon Valdez Such as the Deepwater Horizon … and many MANY more disastrous oil spills… …serious consequences: oil spills 42,000 gal 400,000 gal 185,000,000 gal 462,000 gal 52,000 gal 419,000 gal 2,800,000 gal 530,000 gal 6,500,000 gal 3,000,000 gal 7,000,000 gal 337,000 gal 10,600,000 gal 20,000,000 gal 567,000 gal 343,200 gal 3,000,000 gal 27,000,000 gal 84,000,000 gal 336,000 gal 88,000,000 gal 47,000,000 gal 42,000,000 gal 350,000,000 gal 5,100,000 gal 23,000,000 gal 239,000 gal July 3, 2011 Yellowstone River Montana: Exxon pipeline rupture July 21, 2010 Dalien China: seaport pipeline rupture April 24, 2010 Gulf of Mexico: Deepwater Horizon Jan 23, 2010 Port Arthur, Texas: oil tanker Eagle Otome Mar 11, 2009 Queensland, Australia: container ship Pacific Adventurer Jul 25, 2008 New Orleans, Louisiana: barge-tanker collision Dec 7, 2007 South Korea: Hebei Spirit Aug 11th, 2006 Philippines: Tanker sinks Jul 15, 2006 Beirut, Lebanon: Israelis bomb power station Jun 19, 2006 Louisiana: CITGO Refinery tank Aug-Sep 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana: Katerina Dec. 7, 2004 Aleutian Is, Alaska: Selendang Ayu July 28, 2003 Pakistan: The Tasman Spirit Nov. 13, 2002 Spain: Prestige Nov. 28, 2000 New Orleans: Westchester Jan. 18, 2000 Rio de Janeiro: Petrobras ruptured pipeline Dec. 12, 1999 French Atlantic coast: Erika Feb. 15, 1996 off Welsh coast: Sea Empress Sept. 8, 1994 Russia: oil dam burst Aug. 10, 1993 Tampa Bay, Fla.: Bouchard March 2, 1992 Uzbekistan: oil well. May 28, 1991 Angola: ABT Summer April 11, 1991 Genoa, Italy: Haven Jan. 23–27, 1991 Kuwait: deliberate release, Iraq, Gulf War June 8, 1990 Galveston, Tex.: Mega Borg Mar 24, 1989 Prince William Sound Alaska: Exxon Valdez Dec 21, 1985 Port Angeles Harbor: Arco Anchorage …serious consequences: Such as Smog Such as Carcinogenic Emissions Top 10 emitters 2006: 1. BP: Texas City, TX (pic above: 23,000,000 liters in 2006) 2. Exxon Mobil: Baytown, TX 3. Citgo: Lake Charles, LA 4. Houston Refining Co.: Houston, TX 5. Flint Hills Res: Corpus Christi, TX 6. Motiva: Port Arthur, TX 7. Chalmette Refining: Chalmette, LA 8. Conoco Phillips: Sweeny, TX 9. Conoco Phillips: Roxana, IL 10. Valero: Corpus Christi, TX …serious consequences: Such as Black Lung Disease Such as Coal Mine Disasters …coal miners continue to die in mine accidents… …year after year for more than 100 years… …serious consequences: Coal Mine Disasters Dec 6, 1907 -- 362 miners killed in explosion at Monongah # 6 and 8 in WV. Nov 13, 1909 -- 259 miners are killed in a fire at the Cherry Mine in IL. Oct 22, 1913 -- Explosion kills 263 at Stag Canyon # 2 Coal Mine in Dawson, NM Jun 8, 1917 -- 163 miners killed in fire at Granite Mountain Shaft Mine in Butte, MT Jan 10, 1940 -- 91 miners killed by explosion at Pond Creek # 1 in Bartley, WV. Mar 16, 1940 -- Explosion at Willow Grove # 10 in St. Clairsville OH kills 72. Mar 25, 1947 -- 111 miners killed in explosion at Centralia # 5 in Centralia, IL. Dec 21, 1951 -- An explosion at Orient # 2 mine in West Frankfort, IL kills 119 Nov 20, 1968 -- 78 miners killed by explosion at Consol # 9 mine Farmington WV Dec 30, 1970 -- 38 miners are killed in explosion at # 15 and 16 Mines Hyden, KY May 2, 1972 -- 91 miners killed in fire at Sunshine Mine in Kellogg, ID Mar 15, 1981 -- 15 miners killed by explosion Dutch Creek # 1, Redstone, CO Dec 19, 1984 -- 27 miners killed in fire at Wilberg Mine in Emery County, UT Sep 23, 2001 -- 13 killed by explosion at # 5 Mine, Brookwood AL Jan 2, 2006 -- 12 men die from carbon monoxide poisoning at Sago Mine in WV May 20, 2006 -- 5 killed in an explosion at Darby Mine No. 1 in Harlan County KY Apr 05, 2010 -- Explosion at Upper Big Branch mine in Montcoal WV kills 29 miners. Nov 24, 2010 -- Explosion at Pike River Coal in New Zealand kills 29 miners. …serious consequences: Such as Mercury Pollution and Acid Rain …serious consequences: Coal Sludge and Hydrofracking And hundreds of ruined water supplies …serious consequences: Such as Coal Mine Sinkholes Such as Mountaintop Mining Such as the Alberta Tar Sands …serious consequences: Such as the Increasing CO2 World-Wide …serious consequences: Increasing CO2 World-Wide …serious consequences: Hottest Years on Record since 1901: From NOAA: average combined land and ocean annual temperature since 1901 …serious consequences: Melting Glaciers Melting Greenland …serious consequences: Disappearing Ice Caps: Meanwhile, since 2001 Antarctica has been losing about 10 billion tons of ice per year – which is about 1016 cubic centimeters. (The area of all of Earth’s oceans is about 3.61 x 1016 square centimeters.) …serious consequences: Dying Coral These serious consequences suggest a need to replace carbon fuels. If we do it, we will need to replace 86% of our energy supply: 0.86 x 15,000,000,000,000 watts = 12,900,000,000,000 watts Tidal power may be able to replace as much as 1,000,000,000,000 watts at a cost of $6.5 trillion Geothermal may be able to replace as much 2,000,000,000,000 watts at a cost of $11 trillion Leaving a balance of 9,900,000,000,000 watts to be replaced. How about wind and solar? A 2,000,000 W wind turbine costs about $3,500,000 installed. Unfortunately –on average- because of variable winds the turbine will only work to capacity about 16% of the time. 9,900,000,000,000 W = 30,937,500 turbines 2,000,000 W/turbine x 0.16 30,937,500 turbines x $3,500,000 = = $108,300,000,000,000 About $108 trillion dollars.... Cost Iraq/Afghan war since 9-11 = $1 trillion... A 175 watt Sharp solar panel costs $520. Unfortunately –on average- because of clouds, day and night, and non-optimum angle of the sun a solar panel will only work to capacity about 16% of the time. 9,900,000,000,000 W 175 W/panel x 0.16 = 353,570,000,000 panels 353,570,000,000 panels x $520/panel = $183,860,000,000,000 About $184 trillion dollars.... Remember? Cost Iraq/Afghan war since 9-11 = $1 trillion... Biofuel If all the automobiles in the United States were fueled with 100 percent corn ethanol, 97 percent of U.S. would be needed to grow corn – and nothing else. Corn would cover the total land area of the United States. The energy required to produce the corn ethanol is roughly equal to the energy that is later produced when it is burned: fertilizer production requires large volumes of coal or natural gas; and natural gas is used to dry the corn; plus gasoline and diesel are used in the farm equipment because alcohol does not burn as well! Land that is used to grow corn or sugar cane or oil palm for biofuel, can no longer be used to grow food. So biofuel production drives up the price of food. (Can you say “starving poor”?) Virgin tropical rainforest is burned to make more land available to grow biofuel plants such as sugar cane and oil palm. Brazilians make alcohol for their cars from sugar cane and some biodiesel is made from palm oil. Conventional Nuclear Fission When radioactive isotopes such as Uranium are split in a nuclear chain reaction, substantial amounts of energy are released. That energy can be used to make steam, which spins turbines, which spin generators to make electricity: No carbon dioxide is produced, when nuclear fission is used to make electricity; and the cost of making electricity from nuclear fission may be less than half as much as the the cost of making electricity from wind or solar. However, as yet, there is no safe way to dispose of the spent radioactive fuel, after it has been used in the nuclear fission reactor. And, when accidents happen at nuclear fission power plants, consequences can be catastrophic: A 1979 meltdown at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Fission Plant in the USA destroyed a billion dollar reactor and financially ruined the owner, forcing that corporation into bankruptcy. A 1986 fire and meltdown at the Chernobyl Nuclear Fission Plant in the Ukraine released clouds of radioactive isotopes, ruining the lives of tens of thousands of people in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. A 2011 earthquake/tsunami caused meltdowns at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Fission Plants in Japan, releasing radioactive materials which have ruined Japanese farming and fishing industries in Japan. Comparing Energy Sources: Cost per Trillion Watts (TW) Tidal $6.5 trillion/TW. Geothermal $5.6 trillion/TW. Wind $10.9 trillion/TW. Solar $18.6 trillion/TW. Coal $4.4 trillion/TW. Traditional Nuclear $4 to 8 trillion/TW. Biolfuel Cost Incalculable. Fixing this mess will be expensive. We cannot continue throwing away money on foolishness! Energy from the nuclear fusion of boron 11 and hydrogen can safely and cheaply replace coal, petroleum and natural gas. This is a nuclear reaction, but the fuel, the reaction, and the products are all non-toxic and far safer than traditional nuclear. The hydrogen is the H in H2O. Without an electron it is a proton P. Boron 11 is found in ordinary Borax. No harmful radiation before, during, or after the reaction! The Helium product is the same Helium found in kids’ balloons. How much energy in 11g (2 tsp) of Boron 11? This is enough for 6.02 x1023 fusions. One fusion produces 1.5x10-12 Joules of energy/fusion. Multiply to get Joules of energy in 11g: 6.02 x 1023 fusions x 1.5 x 10-12 Joules/fusion = 9.03 x 1011 Joules Remember this number⬆ An F-16 with a typical load weighs about 14,400 kg. Speed required to escape the Earth (Escape Velocity) is 11,201 m/sec The kinetic energy required to give an F-16 that speed is 1 2 mv2 or 0.5 x 14,400 x 112012 = 9.03 x 1011 Joules Two teaspoons of boron can send an F-16 to the moon! = A polywell nuclear reactor is needed to fuse boron and hydrogen. A 100 megawatt polywell can be mass-produced for about $200 million. A 100 megawatt polywell could provide all of the energy needs for a city such as Port Angeles. Six positively charged coils (called a magrid) are a magnetic trap for electrons. Negative electrons are attracted by positive coils, then held at the center by the magnetic field – like a swarm of angry bees. The negative swarm of electrons attracts positively charged hydrogen ions (aka protons – the p+ ions) and positively charged boron ions (B+). The p+ and B+ ions collide at the center in a fusion reaction. Polywell power output is proportional to R7 (radius of magrid to the seventh power). There is a “just right” radius for the magrid: about 1.5 m. Any smaller, not enough power to break even. Any larger, it blows itself to bits. A 1.5 m magrid will produce about 100 megawatts – about right for Port Angeles. This happens to be about the same size as a 777 jet engine, which has roughly the same power output! But there are important differences: 1. The jet engine uses carbon-based fuel and produces vast amounts of carbon dioxide. The Polywell uses Boron and Hydrogen, and produces NO (zero, nada, нуль) carbon dioxide. 2. The jet engine releases CHEMICAL energy (the atoms are conserved), but the Polywell releases NUCLEAR energy (the atoms are NOT conserved). 3. The 777 jet engines go for about $22 million each, whereas the estimated cost of a prototype 100 MW Polywell is about $350 million. (The cost of a production Polywell should be much less – maybe $200 million.) Comparing Energy Sources: Cost per Trillion Watts (TW) Tidal $6.5 trillion/TW. Geothermal $5.6 trillion/TW. Wind $10.9 trillion/TW. Solar $18.6 trillion/TW. Traditional Nuclear $4 to 8 trillion/TW. Coal $4.4 trillion/TW. Polywell $3.4 trillion/TW. Recently… In February thru June of this year, Dr Jayoung Park and the Polywell research team used their new WB-8 Polywell to validate the R7 power scaling. Since then, they have been analyzing the data from these trials. A peer-review panel was to have met in October to review these results and give the go-ahead for p-B11 testing, but Navy non-disclosure requirements are keeping the panel’s verdict under wraps. Money for continuing the work seems assured, but it is in our national interest to pay attention and make sure that the research continues! In a few years, the United States could be be on the way to restoring its balance of payments problem and otherwise rebuilding its shattered economy by selling Polywells to the entire planet. The market is global! If the U.S. were to sell 10,000 Polywells for $200,000,000 apiece, then as much as $2 trillion additional dollars could be flowing into our economy (...about 5700 times the original $350 million cost for a full scale Polywell prototype.) And in addition to restoring our economy, we would be… 1.Ending our dependence on foreign oil. 2.Ending our dependence on disappearing oil and gas. 3.Ending the nightmarish pollution from coal & oil. 4.Ending the disease and death caused by coal & oil. 5.Significantly reducing our contribution to global warming. This is a vitally important –and complex- issue. But the majority of Americans don’t get it. And many vested interests don’t want to get it. When the time comes to debate major Polywell funding, Americans need to be ready. Millions of Americans must be prepared to support the Polywell and neutralize the vested interests. So pass the word: every American needs to understand this vitally important –and complex- issue. America cannot afford to miss this chance.