pe-flash cards

advertisement
Front
The Human Body
Back
Skeleton & Bones
The Skeleton provides…
Support/Shape
Produces [White blood cells]
Movement
Protects
Bones
Upper Body: Clavicle, Scapula, Sternum, Ribs, Humerus,
Radius, Ulna, (Spine, Cranium, Metacarpals, Phalanges)
Lower Body: Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella
The Human Body
Skeleton & Bones
Q1: Name the three bones in action when throwing
a cricket ball
Q2: If someone was said to have broken the longest
bone in their body, which bone would they have
broken?
Q3: Name two long bones, and two flat bones
Q4: In which area of a bone is bone marrow
situated? a. Outside, b. Centre, c. Spread
throughout the bone structure
Bone Types/Shapes: Flat, Long, Short, Irregular
A: Q1Ulna, Radius, Humerus Q2Femur Q3See front Q4b
The Human Body
Joints
Types of Joint
Fixed
Slightly Moveable
Synovial Joints
Joints are cushioned by
cartilage. Cartilage also
reduces friction, and acts as
a shock absorber.
Synovial Joints
Ball and Socket
Hinge
Pivot
Saddle
Gliding
Joints
Match the following joints to the joint type…
Neck
Gliding
Shoulder
Pivot
Knee
Hinge
Ankle
Ball and Socket
Thumb
Saddle
Wrist
Condyloid
Neck-Pivot; Shoulder-Ball & Socket;
Knee-Hinge; Ankle-Gliding; ThumbSaddle; Wrist-Condyloid
A joint is a point at which two, or more, bones meet.
The Human Body
Front
Soft Tissues
Muscles
-Involuntary: Work without conscious control
-Voluntary/Skeletal: All conscious movement
-Cardiac: Found only in the walls of the heart
Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons.
The point at which the muscle tendon attaches to a
fixed bone is the ORIGIN.
The point at which the muscle attaches to a moving
bone is the INSERTION.
When a muscle contracts, the insertion
moves toward the origin.
The Human Body
Body Systems
Respiratory System: Lungs (Bronchus, Alveoli) Nose,
Mouth, Trachea
Circulatory System: Heart, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
[The pulse rate can be taken at: wrist, neck, groin]
Digestive System: Stomach, Intestines, Esophagus,
Liver
Endocrine System: Hormones, Hypothalamus, Glands
Reproductive System: Testes, Ovaries, Male and
Female genetalia
Nervous System: Nerves, (Spinal Cord, Brain – Central
Nervous System)
The Human Body
Soft Tissues
Q1: Name 10 muscles
Q2: Give another example of antagonistic effectors
Q3: Give another example of where fast twitch fibres
are used
Q4: If the hamstring concentrically contracts, what
does the quadriceps do?
Q5: Is the insertion for the gastronemius at the knee,
or ankle?
A: Q2hamstrings and quadriceps Q3clean and jerk weightlifting Q4
eccentrically contracts Q5 ankle
The Human Body
Back
The Human Body
Gas Exchange
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour are all
exchanged in the alveoli
Tidal Volume = the volume of air you inhale/exhale
witch each breath
Respiratory Rate = how many breaths you take in a
minute
Minute volume = the volume of air inhaled or exhaled
in a minute (min. vol. = tidal vol. x respiratory rate)
Vital Capacity = the maximum amount of air which
can be forced in exhalation
VO2 Max =the maximum amount of oxygen your
body can use in 1 minute. The fitter you are, the
higher your VO2 Max
Front
The Human Body
Soft Tissues
Back
The Human Body
Soft Tissues
Muscles: Isometric & Isotonic Contraction
Isometric Muscle stays the same length.
Isotonic Muscle changes length as it works,
Concentric contraction = muscle shortens
Eccentric contraction = muscle lengthens
Antagonistic Effectors
Muscles work in opposition, ie, one contracts, the other
relaxes. -Contractor = Agonist -Relaxer = Antagonist
Eg. During a bicep curl
The bicep is the agonist, while the tricep is the antagonist
Tendons & Ligaments
Tendons attach muscle to bone
Ligaments attach bone to bone
eg. The cruciate ligament- behind
the patella
Fast Twitch fibres- Muscles work powerfully, in short
‘explosions’ anaerobically for short periods, they fatigue
easily.
Eg’s, Sprinting, fast bowling
Slow Twitch fibres- Produce less powerful, slower
contractions, can work for long periods of time. Eg’s,
marathon running, long distance cycling
Principles of Training
S.P.O.R.T.
Specificity- Make the training specific to your sport
Progression- Ensure that each session, you further your ability
Overload- Concentrate on one aspect, and improve on it
Reversibility- Know that if you stop training, your muscles will
go into atrophy, and your fitness levels will decrease
Tedium- Ensure the training you are doing is mentally and
physically stimulating
F.I.D.
Frequency- How often do you train?
Intensity- How hard do you train?
Duration- How long do you train for?
Training
Principles of Training
Q1: If I wanted to increase my bicep size, which
principle would I use?
Q2: How is atrophy part of the reversibility principle?
Q3: Without turning over, name the five principles, and
what they involve
Q4: If I ran 2km in one session, what could I change, to
ensure I progress in the next session?
A: Q1Overload Q2atrophy is the decrease in muscle size, when
training decreases Q3see overleaf Q4run further, ie 3km
Training
Front
The 5S’s
Speed- The ability to perform quickly and efficiently
-Timed 100m sprint
Stamina- The ability to perform aerobically for long
periods of time
-Bleep test
Strength- To be able to move an object of resistance
-Hand grip dynameter
Suppleness- The range of mobility around all joints is good
-Sit and Reach test
Somatotype- Body shape, ie, endomorph –d for dumpy,
ectomorph –t for thin, mesomorph –m for muscles
-fat callipers
(Tests in italics)
Training
Skill Related Fitness
Agility- the ability to change the body’s position fast
and effectively [Compass Run]
Balance- the ability to maintain the body’s centre of
gravity, with minimal ‘postural sway’ [Stork Stand]
Coordination- the ability to make different parts of
the body work together, efficiently [Ball Bounce]
Power- speed x strength [sergeant jump]
Reaction Time- the time taken from the presentation
of a stimulus, to the onset of a response [ruler drop]
Timing- the ability to combine all of the above, to
produce an effective response [hitting a cricket ball]
[test’s in brackets]
Training
The 5S’s
State which man is: mesomorphic, ectomorphic,
endomorphic
Training
Skill Related Fitness
Q1: Name an event in which optimum balance is
required
Q2: Which components of skill related fitness would
a rugby player need, to be at the top of his game?
Q3: Which component(s) does a sprinter use, as she
hears the starting gun?
A: Q1eg, the beam Q2all of them! Q3reaction time, power, balance
Training
Back
Front
Training Methods
Interval- Involves alternating between fixed periods of exercise
and fixed periods of rest. Eg, run 10m, walk 5m, run 10m etc.
Fartlek- The intensity and type of exercise is varied (ie, through
changes in pace, terrain, style…) eg. Walk 10m, Jog 5m, Sprint
15m…
Continuous- Long, slow, distance exercises, at a constant rate,
without rest
Weight- Each exercise focuses on a specific muscle group, using
machine or free weights.
Circuit- Involves a series of exercises, each taking place at a
different station, alternating the muscle groups worked
Training
Short Term
Sweating
Dehydration
Fatigue
‘Stitch’
Effects of Training
Redness (Blood rises to skin to cool)
Heavy/Faster Breathing
Lactic acid build up/Cramp
Tightness/Soreness in muscles
Long Term
Weight loss ~ Muscle:Fat ratio increases ~
Aerobic/Anaerobic fitness improves ~ Speed, Stamina,
Strength, Suppleness improve ~ Somatatype Changes
Training
Training Methods
Method
Advantages
Disadvantages
Fartlek &
Interval
Improves aerobic &
anaerobic fitness
Increases metabolic rate
Tedious
Non-specific
Continuous
Improves aerobic fitness
Decreases body fat
Little specialist equipment
needed
Tedious
Non-specific
Weight
Improves strength,
tone, posture
Needs specialist,
expensive
equipment
Training
Effects of Training
Q1: What effect(s) will lifting weights increase?
Q2: If a runner sweats a lot, what must he do
in order for him to counteract the sweating?
Q3: To increase aerobic fitness, how much
effort should you be expiring (in terms of the
percentage of your maximum workrate)?
A: Q1Sweating, hotness, muscle size/strength Q2Drink
lots of water/fluid Q3 60-80%
Training
Back
Front
Issues in Sport
Sponsorship
Types of Sponsorship
-Shirt Sponsors (Adidas, Nike, Fly Emirates)
-Stadium Sponsors (Reebok, Emirates)
-Event Sponsors (Bupa, Flora, McDonalds)
-Sport Sponsor (Amateur Swimming)
-Series Sponsor (RBS, Norwich Union)
-An Individual (Adidas, Gillette, Police)
Back
Issues in Sport
Sponsorship
Q1: Name three advantages of sponsorship for;
a team/performer
the company
Q2: Name three disadvantages of sponsorship for:
a team/performer
a company
Q3: Give 5 examples of sponsors in sport
A: Q1equipment, travel, scholarships, money/publicity, advertising,
reputation Q2over dependence on sponsor, exploitation, minority
sports decline/risk (success isn’t guaranteed), media coverage
may reduce, wrong image presented Q3see overleaf
Issues in Sport
Amateurs/Professionals
Issues in Sport
Amateurs/Professionals
Professional players keep fit to take part
are paid to take part
compete for a career
Amateur players take part to keep fit
receive no financial rewards
compete for pleasure
Add these labels to the diagram: Few fulltime
professionals, some part time semi-pro’s, many
amateurs performing at various levels
Front
Issues in Sport
Back
Media
Internet
CD’s
/DVD’s
TV
Media
Media
Q1: How can the internet be helpful to a team
wanting to know more about their opposition?
Q2: How can media coverage be detrimental to a
sport? Give an example
Q3: How can the media influence more children to
uptake a sport?
Newspapers
Sporting Behaviour
Etiquette
A set of unwritten rules, concerning a participants
ability to respect and honour their opponent and the
game.
Eg’s. Acknowledging opponents
good play, shaking hands after a
game, replacing divots on the
golf course
Gamesmanship
‘Winding up’ an opponent. Through comments in
the media (Eg. Ferguson vs. Wenger), diving,
timewasting, employing other tactics, eg, war
dances (the Haka)
Issues in Sport
Sporting Behaviour
Q1: Give two further examples of good etiquette in
the sporting world
Q2: Give an example of poor sporting behaviour in
football, and explain how officials clamp down on it
Q3: What was the ‘Turner report’, and what changes
did it suggest?
A: Q1cheering the opponent after a rugby game, swapping shirts, throwing
rice into the ring before a sumo game Q2goalkeeper taking time over goal
kick, yellow card; diving, yellow card Q3after Hillsborough/ Heysel disasters,
the government produced an enquiry, it suggested all top league stadiums
were all seater, clubs installed CCTV, segregation of fans, removal of
perimeter fences
Books/Magazines
A: Q1find out past results, players, statistics, videos Q2decline in
coverage, eg, hockey, netball Q3more sport coverage, coverage
more suitable for children, more websites, games
Radio
Issues in Sport
Issues in Sport
Front
Back
GCSE Physical Education
GCSE Physical Education
Contents
Flash
The Human Body [ x5 Cards]
Training [ x5 Cards]
Cards
Aspects of Sport
Issues in Sport [ x4 Cards]
Aspects of Sport [ x4 Cards]
Aspects of Sport
Participation In Sport
Various Roles
Player
Administrator/Organiser
Media
Caretaker
Factors affecting participation
Family
Age
Popularity
Education
Environment
Referee/Official
Coach
Chairman
Medical Care
Gender
Peer Group
Race/Culture
Disability
Participation In Sport
Q1: How are children living in the Alps more likely to
take up a snowsport, rather than beach volleyball?
Q2: How has communist Russia dictated as to how
the county’s population participate in sport?
Q3: What have the government done in the UK, to try
and improve sports provision for the whole
population?
Opening Cards
Front
Back
Warm Up & Cool Down
Warm Up is essential to…
-Prepare the body psychologically
-To improve blood flow to the working muscles
-To, literally, warm up; to avoid injury – muscles that
are warm can flex and stretch rather than snap or
tear.
Cool Down is essential to…
-To bring the body’s systems (heart & respiration
rates) gradually back to a resting rate
-To rid the body of lactic acid
-Help prevent soreness, and aid recovery
Aspects of Sport
Factors Affecting Performance
Opponent
Pressure
Altitude
Crowd
Skill Level
Personality
Aspects of Sport
Warm Up & Cool Down
Q1: How should a warm-up be carried out (structure)
Q2: What type of stretching is more effective (and
safer) to carry out at the start of a session; static or or
dynamic?
Q3: Suggest a simple and effective way of cooling
down
A: Q1cardio-vascular/aerobic, dynamic stretching, sport
specific Q2dyamic- still keeps blood flow to working
muscles up, whilst gradually stretching the muscles Q3Run
10m, walk 5m, Run 10m, Stretch, etc
Aspects of Sport
Aspects of Sport
Factors Affecting Performance
Q1: How can altitude affect performance?
Q2: Which factors do not affect a closed skill?
Q3: Give another two factors which may affect
performance
Age
Gender
Drugs
Diet
Injury
A: Q1the amount of oxygen in the air decreases as altitude
increases Q2opposition, surface, weather Q3surface, body
composition
Disability
Front
Aspects of Sport
Substance Abuse
Alcohol-loss of coordination, lack of responsibility
Anabolic Steroids-Accelerate growth of muscles
Beta Blockers-Help performers to relax
Blood Doping-red blood cells are removed, and then
reinjected prior to a competition- increases the amount
of oxyhaemoglobin in the blood
Diuretics-make a competitor lose water by urination
Peptide Hormones-increase muscle growth (Human
Growth Hormone)
Narcotics-Painkillers (Heroin, morphine)
Stimulants-increase activity of the nervous and
cardiovascular systems
Tobacco-can help people relax
Substance Abuse
Q1: In which sport would beta blockers be beneficial
to the competitor?
Q2: Human Growth Hormones can only be detected
up to 24hours after use, how does this drug have an
advantage over others will similar affects?
Q3: Name two effects on the body caused by
smoking
A: Q1darts, snooker Q2 if a competitor takes the HGH more than
24hours before a drug test, it will go undetected Q3increased
chance of heart disease- due to cholesterol in the coronary
arteries; ‘smokers cough’ due to the hot air burning the trachea
and lungs
Aspects of Sport
Back
Other Tips
-Constantly recap on things you’ve learnt –
just simple things like naming the muscles,
etc.
-Have confidence in yourself!
End
Cards
+Aim to be the best
-Revision = Relaxed, the more you revise,
the more relaxed you will be come the
exams
-talk to people, gain knowledge, and
wisdom
GCSE Physical Education Flash Cards
Drew Harding 2008
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards