PowerPoint: Firefighter I and II Re

Fire Fighter I
Fire Control-Lesson One
There is to be a designated safety officer at all
fire control practical's.
1. Discuss the need for size-up procedures on
vehicle emergencies.
a) Proper types of barrier devices
i) Fire line tape
ii)Traffic cones
iii)Utility rope
Fire Fighter II
Building Construction
Lesson Three
The Firefighter II candidate shall correctly define in writing the different material used
in lightweight construction as well as identify lightweight construction
components, describe their reaction to fire and truss locations found in structures.
1. The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight
construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight
2. The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight
structural components to fire.
3. The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can
be found in structures.
Fire Fighter II
Building Construction
Lesson Three
The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight
construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight
1. Define the term “Truss construction.”
2. Discuss “surface to mass ratio.”
3. Discuss “Open web steel joists.”
4. Discuss “Wood trusses.”
5. Point out the different types of trusses.
6. Label the different parts of a truss.
Fire Fighter II
Building Construction
Lesson Three
Point out the difference between a steel truss and a wood truss.
Discuss the function of gusset plates to wooden trusses.
Define the term “Engineered wood structural member.”
10. Define the term “Plywood.”
11. Define the term “Oriented Strand Board.”
12. Discuss compression and tension forces as it relates to truss construction.
Fire Fighter II
Building Construction
Lesson Three
The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight
structural components to fire.
1. Discuss the statement – “Our trusses are engineered.”
2. Discuss hazards associated with a “truss void.”
3. Discuss the fire characteristics of steel trusses.
4. Discuss the fire characteristics of wood trusses.
5. Discuss the fire characteristics of wooden I beams.
Fire Fighter II
Building Construction
Lesson Three
1. The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where
trusses can be found in structures.
2. Discuss floor trusses and the problems associated with them.
3. Discuss roof trusses and the problems associated with them.
Fire Fighter II
Fire Behavior
Lesson Two
The Fire Fighter II candidate shall correctly describe in writing why recognizing
observations in reading smoke and the warning signs of hostile fire events is
1. Explain why reading smoke is important to evaluating the fires position within a
2. Explain how evaluating the volume of smoke assists in the understanding of the
amount of fuel that is off-gassing in a given space.
3. Explain that the velocity of smoke is an indicator of pressure.
4. Describe the two things that can create smoke pressure.
a. Heat
b. Restricting the volume of smoke within a container
Fire Fighter II
Fire Behavior
Lesson Two
5. Explain how smoke thickens.
6. Discuss the fact that the greater the smoke density, the more likely a
hostile fire event can occur.
7. Explain that the color of smoke will only indicate the type of burning
material in a single-fuel fire.
8. Point out that smoke can tell the Fire Fighter which stage of burning is
taking place.
Divide the class up into suitable size work groups 3-5 candidates. Show them
pictures of different fire scenarios and have them evaluate the smoke
conditions. Assist them in recognizing the volume, velocity, density, and
color of smoke for each picture.
Reading Smoke
Why “Read” Smoke?
To determine “HOW MUCH” fire
Why “Read” Smoke?
To help find the LOCATION of the fire
Why “Read”
To help predict
COLLAPSE potential
Why “Read” Smoke?
To help PRIORITIZE Strategies & Tactics
Why “Read” Smoke?
To PROTECT Firefighters from a
Back Draft
Smoke Explosion
Auto Ignition
Rapid Fire Spread
The “ADVANCED” Basics
What is “Smoke”?
Solid Particles
Other fibers
• Oil
• Tar
Fire Gases
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen Sulfide
Smoke is FUEL!!!
Additional Products of Combustion:
•Water Vapor
•Unburned Particles
•Carbon Dioxide
Flashpoint and Auto Ignition
Carbon Monoxide 1292 F
Hydrogen Cyanide
538 F
-15 F
428 F
Hydrogen Sulfide
500 F
12 F 928 F
Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen Cyanide is more prevalent now
than ever before due to the increased use
of synthetics.
It attacks our bodies through Oral inhalation
as well as Occular and Dermal absorption.
It is more lethal than CO and is more
difficult to test for toxicity levels.
It is suspected of contibuting to the many of
the FF Fatalities in the past originally
thought to CO induced.
Fuel – UEL and LEL
Reaction- Oxygen-Fuel effect
Ceiling layer High fuel/Low Oxygen
Floor Layer High Oxygen/Low Fuel
They meet at the reaction layer
Oxygen – Deficient or Enriched
The “ADVANCED” Basics
What relationship does
mass & density have
on fuels?
Fuels are Synthetic now
Fuels have LESS MASS –
they off-gas quicker!
Building Construction Factors
Fire protection systems
Heat Flux
Lightweight Construction
• I-Joist
Lightweight Construction
• Glu-Lam
• Finger-Joint
Lightweight Construction
• Panels
Lightweight Construction
• Wood Truss
Gusset Plates
How Wood Burns
• As the surface temperature of wood increases due to fire
exposure, flammable vapors are produced and a char layer
(burnt wood) is formed on the external surfaces.
• In the presence of fire, these flammable vapors ignite and
contribute to the fire.
• As the char layer gets thicker, it insulates the remaining
unburned wood and slows the rate of vapor production,
thereby slowing the charring process
• American Forest & Paper Associationhttp://www.woodaware.info/index.html
• Southern Building Components Association
• http://www.sbcindustry.com/configurations.php
Type of fuel load
Size / Amount
Construction and Contents
Homeowners “padding” their homes:
Plusher carpet
Elaborate curtain & drapes
More / heavier furniture
Comfort accessories
“Bed, Bath & Beyond”
Increasing use of synthetic materials
Tighter construction
Better insulation
Modern construction materials
Double/triple pane EE windows
Influences fire spread
Fire Protection Systems
“Modern” Structure Fire
Ceiling temps have increased from 1300 to
1600 degrees
BTU production > 18,000
(more than doubled)
What Does this Mean For Us?
• Doesn’t necessarily
change our
• Does accelerate our
tactical time frame at
an incident...
The “ADVANCED” Basics
• How does “flammable range” factor in?
Flammable Range & the Three Fires
Too Rich . . .
Too Lean . . .
Just Right . . .
The “ADVANCED” Basics
To Read Smoke – you must be able to:
1. Determine the stage of burning (early,
growing, late)
2. Tell if the Fire is in Thermal Balance (smoke
up and out, fresh air in).
3. Find out if the “box” is absorbing heat or not
(Linear vs. Turbulent Smoke Flow)
“ HOSTILE ”Fire Events
• Flashover
• Back draft
• Smoke Explosion
• Rapid Fire Spread
• Auto Ignition
Fuel mass/box is heat saturated
Reflective radiant heat
Simultaneous ignition of fuels
Warning Signs: Turbulent
smoke, Rollover, Auto-Ignition
Flashover of one box means
Transition or event that occurs between the
incipient and fully developed phases of fire
All surfaces that are exposed ignite at once
Introduction of oxygen to an environment
that is:
Heated past fuel ignition temps
Usually confined or restricted
Pressurized with gases
Capable of sustained burning
Warning Signs: Ugly Yellow/grey smoke, Smoke
leaving cracks under pressure, black-stained
Note: Puffing is NOT a good warning sign( a
pressurized container must vent before it can
A pocket of gas that has reached an ignitable mixture but not enough energy to sustain ignition
Ignition of this pocket is a spark or flame – which then
causes an “explosive” surge of pressure
Usually no resulting fire - but increased chance of fire
spread (container breach?)
Ceiling spaces and vaulted ceilings are candidates for
smoke explosions
RAPID Fire Spread
Usually “Container” Influenced – especially stairs and
Fuel is continuous and available to burn
Especially “volatile” fuel causes the spread – usually
smoke-cloud ignition
Thermal Balance exists
Usually results from another “event”
Typically used to describe the
ignition of fuels AFTER they
leave the box
Primarily a WARNING SIGN
Exposure Threat:
Other parts of building
Other Buildings
“ Reading Smoke”
Observations are
typically made from
outside - inside
observations hide
the “real” picture.
Size Up
• IC
• Fire attack
• Safety
• Backup
• SAR crews
• Salvage crews
Before you “ Read Smoke”
Nothing is absolute
Visible FIRE is easy to read - look past
it for the real story
Compare all Openings/Cracks
The ART of Reading Smoke
PROCESS to help
predict fire behavior
and hostile events
Step 1: Evaluate
Key Factors
Volume = Fullness of Box
Velocity (Pressure) = Heat,
Volume, and Distance to fire
Density = Quality of burning
– likelihood of “event”
Color = Stage of Heating,
Distance, amount of
Characteristics of Smoke
Air Track
Smoke Velocity
May be an indicator of pressure inside the
Pressure may be caused by heat or volume
Smoke Velocity
If the velocity or pressure is a result of heat,
the smoke will rise and loose velocity.
If the velocity or pressure is a result of
volume, the smoke will loose velocity but
also maintain a neutral buoyancy.
Smoke Velocity
• Turbulent smoke is a potential
indicator of the container not
being able to absorb more heat.
• Laminar smoke is a potential
indicator of the container still
being able to absorb heat.
Smoke Velocity
• Smoke will become slower as distance from the
seat of the fire increases.
• To locate the seat of the fire, compare smoke
coming from several opening and determine
which has the most turbulent smoke coming
from the smallest opening
Smoke Color
Heavy/light is an insufficient description
The department should have predetermined
descriptions of smoke conditions in place
in SOP’s
Smoke Color
Hydrocarbon fuels
Incipient fire or great distance from the seat
Ordinary combustibles
Wood at or near ignition temperature possibly
involving structural components
Smoke Color
Light colored smoke may have large amounts of unburned fuel and may have
travel some distance picking up moisture and depositing carbon.
Dark smoke often indicates an under ventilated fire or hydrocarbon fuels.
Smoke Volume
May relate to amount of fuel
May relate to pressure
Best as an indicator when coupled with
other indicators
Ventilation controlled fires that near
the smoldering stage may produce
larger quantities of smoke.
Indicator of degree or location of
Smoke Density
May result from amount of fuel in the smoke
Heavy/light description is inadequate
Optical Density
Refers to how well you can see through the smoke.
Optically dense smoke may contain high concentrations of particulate matter.
Often described as having
the appearance of velvet.
Relates to the fuel and degree
of ventilation.
Physical Density
Refers to the buoyancy of the smoke.
 The higher the higher the density, the lower the temperature and pressure, the
smoke sinks.
 The lower the density, the higher the temperature and pressure, the smoke will
Pay Attention to Changes
Any significant change over a 5 second
period may indicate a hostile fire event or
loss of structural integrity.
Pay Attention to Changes
Sudden rise in hot gas layer
• Ventilation from outside crews
• Self ventilation
Pay Attention to Changes
Sudden lowering of the hot gas layer
Worsening condition
• Impending flashover
• Rapid fire progression
Water application
• Excessive
• Inappropriate
Not typically visible
Must observe its effects
Air Track
Direction of smoke
Direction of fresh air
Direction of Smoke
Heated gases will move up and out from the
Often predicts the path of fire spread
Pay attention to the height of the hot gas
layer (Thickness)
When making entry-look at the direction of the
smoke and the fresh air.
Always carry a light and observe the direction of
the smoke and the fresh air.
Air Track
Size of opening
• Laminar
• Turbulent
Air Track
Neutral plane
• Charles’ law: as the temperature of a gas increases it will expand
becoming less dense and more buoyant
• Gay-Lussac’s law: when the volume of gas remains constant and the
temperature increases, pressure increases
Movement of the hot gas layer
• Up or down
Air Track
Neutral Plane
• The plane that is formed between the hot air layer (top) and the cool air
or oxygen layer (Bottom).
• The hot air layer typically moves outward away from the seat of the fire
and towards the ventilation point.
• The cool air typically moves inward towards the seat of the fire.
Neutral Plane
Visible Flames
Most obvious indicator
Often the latest indicator to develop
High V.V.D.C. = “BLACK FIRE”
“Black Fire” is the term
we give to High Volume,
High Velocity, Extremely
Dense, Black Smoke.
It is the sure sign of
impending flashover –
VENT & COOL are your
only choices.
Black Fire
Is there a chance of survival in a
compartment that is producing black
turbulent smoke?
Are rescue efforts feasible?
160 Degrees
The maximum survivable (wet) temperature
Step 2: Weigh
Container (most
important factor)
Thermal Balance
Firefighting efforts
Other factors?
Step 3: Judge the Fire Status
Are conditions getting better or worse?
Classify the Fire:
Stable -predictable
Rapidly changing
Step 4: Predict the EVENT
Consider that:
One hostile event can - and usually will lead to another event.
Communicate your observations.
Warning Signs are not always visual – use
Some other “Tricks”
When you open a door
or window - watch
what the smoke
does…and what THE
Some other
In poor visibility - watch the
smoke in front of your light - it
will give you some clues
Some other “Tricks”
A 5-second change in any
key factor means an event
has taken place – the key
is to define what event
has taken place and to
forecast what will likely
happen next.
“The garbage man doesn’t get excited when he turns the corner
and sees trash, and you shouldn’t get excited when you turn
the corner and see fire.”
“You should expect fire on every run.”
-Lt A. Fredericks
Special Thanks to
David Dodson
With less fires - this ART could be
take the lesson…
pass it on.
David Dodson
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