PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER TRAINING Section 1910.157

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PORTABLE FIRE
EXTINGUISHER TRAINING
Section 1910.157
Montana Department of Labor & Industry
Occupational Safety and Health
Training Institute
PURPOSE OF PORTABLE
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS?
TO CONTROL OR EXTINGUISH SMALL
OR INCIPIENT STAGE FIRES
and
PROTECT EVACUATION ROUTES
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FIRE TRIANGLE
Fire is a very rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and a
combustible/flammable material, which results in the release of heat,
light, flames, and smoke.
FOR FIRE TO EXIST, THE FOLLOWING FOUR
ELEMENTS MUST BE PRESENT AT THE SAME
TIME:
• Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion,
• Enough HEAT to raise the material to its ignition
temperature,
• Some sort of FUEL or combustible material, and
• The CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire.
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BEFORE FIGHTING A FIRE
1.WHAT IS BURNING?
2.IS THE FIRE CONTAINED?
3.WHERE IS THE CLOSEST
EXTINGUISHER?
4.IS THIS THE CORRECT
EXTINGUISHER?
5.WHERE IS THE EXIT IN RELATION
TO THE FIRE?
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HOW AN
EXTINGUISHER WORKS
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CLASSIFICATIONS
• Class A: “Ash” (Combustibles)
• Class B: “Barrel” (Flam. Liquids)
• Class C: “Circuit” (Electrical)
• Class D: “Dents” (Metals)
• Class K: “Kitchen” (Cooking Grease)
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What’s the Cause
of this Fire? What Class?
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CLASS LABELING
• OLDER STYLE of labeling
indicating suitability for use
on class A, B, and C fires.
• NEWER STYLE of labeling
that shows this extinguisher
may be used on ordinary
combustibles, flammable
liquids, or electrical
equipment fires.
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LABELING
For example, a simple water extinguisher might
have a label like this…
…which means it should only be used on
Class A fires.
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
WATER
• These extinguishers
contain water and
compressed gas or air
• should only be used on
class A (ordinary
combustibles) fires
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
• Most effective on class B and C
(liquids and electrical) fires.
• Suffocates and Cools the fire.
• Carbon dioxide is stored as a
compressed liquid; As it expands, it
cools the surrounding air. Cooling
will often cause ice to form around
the “horn”.
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
DRY CHEMICAL
• Extinguishers are usually rated for
multiple purpose use. Class A,B, and C
fires.
• These are filled with foam or
powder and pressurized with
nitrogen.
• The greatest portion of this powder
is composed of mono-ammonium
phosphate.
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
• DRY CHEMICAL (cont.)
o
BC - regular type of dry chemical extinguisher.
Filled with sodium bicarbonate or potassium
bicarbonate.
 Leaves a mildly corrosive residue which must be
cleaned immediately to prevent any damage to
materials.
o
Mono-ammonium phosphate, a yellow powder.
 Leaves a sticky residue that may be damaging to
electrical appliances such as computers.
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
KITCHEN OIL AND
GREASE FIRES
• Application wand keeps operator at a safe
distance from the fire
• Safe to used around electrical appliances up
to 100,000 volts.
• Low PH Wet Chemical Agent fine mist
discharge helps prevent grease splash and
fire re-flash while cooling the appliance
• Precise extinguishing
agent application
• For use on all cooking
appliances
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
METAL FIRES
• Used on fires involving metals such as
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium,
and potassium.
• Often specific for the type of metal in
question.
• Have no rating nor given a multi-purpose
rating for use on other types of fires.
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TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS
HALON
• Contains a gas that interrupts the
chemical reaction that takes place
when fuels burn.
• Often used to protect electrical
equipment - leaves no residue.
• Limited range, 4 to 6 feet. Initial
application should be made at the
base of the fire, even after the
flames have been extinguished.
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INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE &
TESTING
•
•
•
•
Monthly Visual
Annual Maintenance Check
Empty and Refill – 6 years
Hydrostatic – 5 to12 years
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MONTHLY VISUAL
INSPECTION CHECKLIST
• Is each extinguisher in its designated place, clearly visible,
and not blocked by equipment, coats or other objects?
• Is the nameplate with operating instructions legible and
facing outward?
• Is the pressure gauge showing that the extinguisher is fully
charged (the needle should be in the green zone)?
• Is the pin and tamper seal intact?
• Is the extinguisher in good condition and showing no signs
of physical damage, corrosion, or leakage?
• Have all dry powder extinguishers been gently rocked top to
bottom to make sure the powder is not packing?
• Record the inspection.
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MONTHLY
VISUAL INSPECTION
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OSHA Standard
29 CFR 1910.157
The employer shall mount,
locate and identify
extinguishers so that they are
readily accessible.
• Mount on brackets or in wall
cabinets
• Carrying handle 3-1/2 to
5 feet above floor.
• Larger extinguishers carrying
handle 3 feet from the floor
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MOUNTING & LOCATING
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MOUNTING & LOCATING
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MOUNTING & LOCATING
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MOUNTING & LOCATING
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MOUNTING & LOCATING
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IDENTIFYING LOCATIONS
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TRAINING
• Where extinguishers are provided for
employee use:
o
Educational program shall exist
 Principles of fire extinguisher use &
 Hazards of fire
o
o
Training of employee at initial employment
At least annually thereafter
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USING A FIRE
EXTINGUISHER
Steps to follow when responding to incipient stage fires:
• Sound the fire alarm and call the fire department.
• Identify a safe evacuation path before approaching the fire.
• Do not allow the fire, heat, or smoke to come between you and
your evacuation path.
• Select the appropriate type of fire extinguisher.
• Discharge the extinguisher within its effective range using the
P.A.S.S. Technique (pull, aim, squeeze, sweep).
• Back away from an extinguished fire in case it flames up again.
• Evacuate immediately if the extinguisher is empty and the fire
is not out or if the fire progresses beyond the incipient stage.
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P.A.S.S.
PULL... Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper
seal.
AIM... Aim low, pointing the extinguisher
nozzle (or its horn or hose)
at the base of the fire.
SQUEEZE... Squeeze the handle to release
the extinguishing agent.
SWEEP... Sweep from side to side at the
base of the fire until it appears to be out.
Watch the area. If the fire re-ignites, repeat
steps 2 - 4.
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INCIPIENT STAGE FIRE
• The fire is limited to the original material
ignited,
• It is contained (such as in a waste basket),
• Has not spread to other materials and
• The flames are no higher than the
firefighter's head.
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INCIPIENT
STAGE
FIRE?
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MT. Occupational Safety & Health
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Do ya have
any
questions?
Dan Toney
Safety and Health Specialist
Montana Dept. of Labor and
Industry
(406) 247-1035
[email protected]
MT. Occupational Safety & Health
Training Institute
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