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Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
Module 6
Post occupancy evaluation and
thermal comfort
www.sara-project.net
Plan
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
1. Post Occupancy Evaluation
2. Case of Study : SARA project
3. Questionnaire model
POE - POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION
Sustainable
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to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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“Technically, POE studies of buildings involve
systematic collection and evaluation of information
about the performance of a building in use. Data
collected can include measured information such as
energy consumption, temperatures, lighting levels,
acoustic performance etc., and survey data from
the perspective of the occupants regarding issues
such as comfort, aesthetics, occupant satisfaction,
management, etc ..”
Gupta, R. (2006) Learning by doing: a post-occupancy building
evaluation module for postgraduate architecture students
POE & FSTC (1)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• The POE (Post Occupancy Evaluation) is
concerned with the performance of the
building (‘the building is often hot in
summer’).
• the FSTC (Field Studies of Thermal Comfort) is
concerned with the occupant of the building
(‘I feel hot now’).
• The ‘function’ of the occupant in the POE is to
provide a subjective measure of a building
and act as its ‘memory’
POE & FSTC (2)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• The POE survey puts little emphasis on
measuring the physical characteristics of
the environment (temperature etc) at the
time of the evaluation
• In the thermal comfort survey the physical
measurements are a key function
because the aim is to predict the
subjective from a knowledge of the
physical.
POE & FSTC (3)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• The FSTC is uses detailed experimental
work done in laboratories and climate
chambers to explain the physiological
and physical and psychological
processes which underlie thermal comfort
• In the same way POE can be informed by
the results of FSTC which explore the
responses of building occupants
POE & FSTC (4)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• There is a rich interface between the two
types of survey and the ways in which
they complement each other.
• In particular the ways in which the
information from comfort surveys might be
of use to explore the subjective scales in a
POE, both as regards their design and
interpretation
Thermal comfort
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• Thermal comfort is famously described by
ASHRAE Standard 55 as that condition of
mind which expresses satisfaction with the
thermal environment.
• A Psychological phenomenon not a
physiological one (though with a base in
physiology and physics)
The lessons of comfort surveys (1)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• Field studies in buildings show that the
subjective response is the driving force
behind the behavioural reaction
according the adaptive principal:
‘If a change occurs such as to produce
discomfort, people react in ways which
tend to restore their comfort’.
The lessons of comfort surveys (2)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
• Comfort is not just a response to thermal
conditions, but part of an interaction
between occupants and buildings
• Comfort is a goal to be sought from, not a
product delivered by the building
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• The occupants may change themselves,
or use controls to change the condition to
achieve comfort
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Comfort is achieved by
the occupants adapting to
the building
www.sara-project.net
Occupant
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
Building
Or by the occupants
adapting the building to
suit them
This has to be done within the climatic, social, economic
and cultural context of the whole system
Adaptive opportunity
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• Crucial, therefore, to the likely success of
any building in being comfortable are the
adaptive opportunities it provides.
• Adaptive opportunities are those features
of the building which allow the occupants
to adapt themselves to the building or to
adapt the environment in the building to
their own requirements
Personal Variables
P e rs o n a l v a ria b le s
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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1 .6
1 .4
1 .2
1
0 .8
0 .6
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
0 .4
0 .2
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
In d o o r te m p e ra tu re
Data from Pakistan
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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P ro p o rtio n o f su b jects co m fo rtab le
The result of these actions is shown in this graph of the level
of discomfort at different indoor temperatures among office
workers in Pakistan
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Little discomfort
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
o
M ean indoor tem perature C
Source: Nicol, Raja, Allauddin & Jamy (1999) Energy and Buildings 30
38
Different controls are used in different
circumstances
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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C h a n g e s in u se o f w in d o w s, lig h ts, fa n s a n d h e a te rs w ith in d o o r
te m p e ra tu re
100%
80%
W
60%
L
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
F
40%
H
20%
0%
0
5
10
15
20
25
In d o o r g lo b e te m p e e ra tu re (C )
30
35
40
People adapt
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• Over time the temperature which people
find comfortable is close to the mean
temperature they have experienced.
• In other words the conditions which
occupants find comfortable are
influenced their recent thermal
experience.
Results from field surveys
Sustainable
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
C o m fo rt te m p e ra tu re
www.sara-project.net
35
30
E u ro p
25
P a k is t
H um p
20
15
10
15
20
25
30
35
M e a n te m p e ra tu re e xp e rie n c e d
Source: From Nicol & Humphreys Energy and Buildings 34
40
Thermal indices
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• Much of the work in thermal comfort
(laboratory and field) has been aimed at
perfecting an ‘index’ to describe comfort
in terms of all the environmental and
personal factors effecting comfort
• PMV, ET*, SET etc
Thermal indices
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• The problem with complex indices is not only
how to collect the data, but also that the
errors, both in the measurement of the
variables and in the way they are ‘put
together’, tend to be cumulative.
• The more complex the index the more
important the errors and the less the likelihood
that the index will be useful as a predictive
tool.
Variability and forgiveness (1)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• When occupants describe conditions as ‘hot’,
they often mean ‘hot as compared to what
might be expected’ or ‘hot as compared to
what I normally expect’.
• This might imply the deviations from the
‘normal’ temperature would give rise to
dissatisfaction and that variability leads to
discomfort.
Variability and forgiveness (2)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• But temperature change in buildings might be
the result of occupant actions to achieve
comfort as well as the result of factors beyond
their control.
• Variable temperatures (assumed to be a
‘bad thing’ in the steady-state heat balance
models of thermal comfort) might actually be
improving occupant comfort.
Variability
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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• Change is natural, stasis is only possible in
certain (generally non-sustainable)
circumstances.
• Thermal sensation relates to a running mean
of temperature rather than its instantaneous.
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
• The relationship is not an exact one but the
principle seems robust over a number of
studies.
Running mean temperature
The rate at which the comfort temperature
changes is related to the running mean of the
outdoor temperature (red line)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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O u td o o r te m p e ra tu re s in O x fo rd fo r J u n e /J u ly 1 9 9 6
25
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
Tem perature
20
15
10
5
6 /1 /9 6
6 /1 1 /9 6
d a ily m e a n T o
6 /2 1 /9 6
T rm 3 3
7 /1 /9 6
T rm 8 0
7 /1 1 /9 6
T r0 .9 0
7 /2 1 /9 6
T rm 9 9
Wilson Building, Open
University, UK
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Architecture Applied
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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Passive refurbishment
of first floor studio
Third floor
Passive studio
100%
100%
80%
80%
60%
60%
40%
40%
20%
20%
Sustainable
0%
Architecture
Applied
1
2
3
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
August 1995
(weather very hot)
0%
4
5
6
1
7
2
3
4
5
6
7
How often is
it too hot?
100%
www.sara-project.net
100%
80%
80%
60%
60%
40%
40%
20%
20%
0%
September 1995
0%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
1
100%
100%
80%
80%
60%
60%
40%
40%
20%
20%
2
3
4
5
6
7
October 1995
0%
0%
1
2
Never
3
4
5
6
7
Often
1
2
Never
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Source: POE research
team at OBU
O v e ra ll s a tis fa c tio n w ith th e re fu rb is h m e n t
60%
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
third floor
Source: POE research team at OBU
6
5
4
3
2
s tudio
unsatisfacto ry
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
very satisfac tory
0%
OU Studio
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• Perception of building changes with the
outdoor conditions
• Overall satisfaction with passive Studio
floor is better
• (also satisfaction better near window than
away from it)
Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
2. Case of study :
SARA Project
www.sara-project.net
Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
Description of the UK building of
SARA Project
In the UK the chosen project was of the
new Administrative and Student Services
Building (ASS), Southampton University.
With 2500 m2 gross area this new
department building, located on the
existing campus site, comprises of a new 3
storeys high block linked to the old
administrative block by an atrium.
www.sara-project.net
Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
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Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
State of project progress
Sustainable
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER
WINTER
20062006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER
WINTER
20062006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SUMMER 2006
SUMMER
WINTER
20062006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Southampton University New office space temperature 2
Southampton University New office space temperature 3
Southampton University New office space temperature 4
Southampton University WS External Temp (53039)
Sustainable
30 Architecture Applied
25 to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
20
www.sara-project.net
15
10
5
3 1 /1 2 /1 0
3 0 /1 2 /1 0
2 9 /1 2 /1 0
2 8 /1 2 /1 0
2 7 /1 2 /1 0
2 6 /1 2 /1 0
2 5 /1 2 /1 0
2 4 /1 2 /1 0
2 3 /1 2 /1 0
2 2 /1 2 /1 0
2 1 /1 2 /1 0
2 1 /1 2 /1 0
2 0 /1 2 /1 0
1 9 /1 2 /1 0
1 8 /1 2 /1 0
1 7 /1 2 /1 0
1 6 /1 2 /1 0
1 5 /1 2 /1 0
1 4 /1 2 /1 0
1 3 /1 2 /1 0
1 2 /1 2 /1 0
-5
1 1 /1 2 /1 0
0
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF NEW BUILDING
WINTER 2006
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Contract:
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3118
SECOND,
SECOND, THIRD
THIRD AND
AND FORTH
FORTH FLOORS
FLOORS OF
OF NEW&OLD
NEW&OLD BUILDING
BUILDING
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF NEW&OLD BUILDING
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF NEW&OLD BUILDING
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
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Contract:
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SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF OLD BUILDING
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
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SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF OLD BUILDING
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
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to Replicable Public
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF OLD BUILDING
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
WINTER 2006
Sustainable
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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SECOND, THIRD AND FORTH FLOORS OF OLD BUILDING
Concluding remarks
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
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• Building performance: required fine tuning
for design, fabric and services
• Users performance: participation and
information
A demonstration project co-financed
by the European Commission.
(TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503188)
Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
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Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
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Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
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Conclusions (1)
Sustainable
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Contract:
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• Surveys, whether of buildings or of people,
form part of a continuum.
• The climate chamber thermal comfort
study might sit at one end and the POE at
the other.
• The FSTC stands somewhere in between
and must learn from and inform both.
Conclusions (2)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
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• The FSTC is concerned with the physics
and physiology of the climate chamber
study but not constrained by the implied
image of humans as animals with clothes.
• At the same time because the context of
the FSTC is almost always a building, the
findings of field studies will often touch
closely on the evaluation of buildings:
Conclusions (3)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
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• Thermal comfort is a goal of building
occupants and not simply a product of
the building services, though the building
services provide some of the means by
which the goal is achieved.
• Buildings and their occupants interact
continually and the relationship between
them is a dynamic one.
Conclusions (4)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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Contract:
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• The use of building controls should be a
concern for future energy research
• In using occupants as part of the means
to measure buildings, POE should
understand the changing nature of the
‘comfort’ the occupants are being used
to measure.
• This has profound implications for the
reproducibility of the POE survey results.
Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings
3. Questionnaire model
Used in the framework
of the SARA project
www.sara-project.net
P r o je c t S A R A
E u r o p e a n C o m m is s io n – F r a m e w o rk V I
O x fo r d B r o o k e s U n iv e r s ity
S u rv e y a t th e A S S B u ild in g , D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 5
U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th a m p to n
T h is s u rv e y c o n c e rn s th e e n v iro n m e n t in y o u r o ffic e . A s y o u m ig h t k n o w P ro je c t
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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S A R A a im s to c o n s tru c t s u s ta in a b le , c o s t e ffe c tiv e , h ig h ly e n e rg y e ffic ie n t,
p u b lic -a c c e s s e c o -b u ild in g s th a t a re im m e d ia te ly re p lic a b le a t la rg e s c a le in
m a n y lo c a tio n s . T h e e c o -b u ild in g s w ill b e m o n ito re d a n d a s u rv e y o f u s e r
s a tis fa c tio n w ill b e d o n e to a s s e s s th e ir p e rfo rm a n c e . A t p r e s e n t w e a re
a s k in g y o u r h e lp in m o n ito rin g th e n e w a d d itio n to th e A S S B u ild in g .
T h is q u e s tio n n a ire is c o n c e rn e d w ith th e te m p e ra tu re , lig h tin g , v e n tila tio n a n d
o v e ra ll c o m fo rt in y o u r o ffic e . W e w o u ld b e g ra te fu l if y o u c o u ld a n s w e r a ll
q u e s tio n s , b u t p le a s e d o n o t fe e l th a t y o u n e e d to ta k e to o m u c h tim e to th in k
a b o u t y o u r a n s w e rs . T h e q u e s tio n n a ire s h o u ld ta k e le s s th a n 1 0 m in u te s .
YOURS
ANSW ERS
W IL L
BE
TREATED
IN
THE
S T R IC T E S T
C O N F ID E N C E , N O IN D IV ID U A L R E S U L T S W IL L B E A V A IL A B L E T O
A N Y O N E A N D N O O N E W IL L B E R E F E R R E D B Y N A M E IN T H E R E P O R T .
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
YOU
W IL L
BE
G IV E N
C O L L E C T IN G O N L Y .
A
NUMBER
FOR
PURPOSES
OF
DATA
If y o u h a v e a n y q u e rie s a b o u t th is q u e s tio n n a ire , p le a s e e -m a il M a ria R ita
(M a ita ) K e s s le r (m rb k e s s le [email protected] b ro o k e s .a c .u k ) o r c a ll h e r o n 0 7 7 4 7 8 6 5 3 6 5 .
T H A N K Y O U F O R P A R T IC IP A T IN G IN T H IS S U R V E Y
W IN T E R S U R V E Y
D E S K N U M B E R … .. -
(m a p o f th e flo o rs )
B a c k g ro u n d :
a ) F o r h o w lo n g h a ve yo u b e e n in th is d e s k ? … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .
b ) P le a s e te ll u s h o w m a n y p e o p le sh a re yo u r o f fice s p a c e :… … … … … … … ..
c)
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
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H o w d o yo u c o m e to w o rk : w a lk in g ( ) b u s ( ) b ic yc le ( ) c a r ( )
d ) D o yo u fe e l th a t yo u a re :
b y a w in d o w (
)
e ) D o yo u fe e l a ffe c te d b y th e w in d o w ? Y e s (
f)
a w a y fro m th e w in d o w (
) No (
)
)
If “Y e s ” p le a s e sa y in w h a t w a y:
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
N B – In th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s p le a s e p u t a tic k in th e b o x ,
w h ic h b e s t e x p re s s e s , y o u r ju d g e m e n t.
C o n tro l:
H o w m u c h c o n tro l d o yo u fe e l th a t yo u h a v e o v e r th e fo llo w in g a s p e c ts
o f y o u r e n v iro n m e n t?
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
T e m p e ra tu re
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
H e a tin g
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
C o o lin g
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
V e n tila tio n
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
N a tu ra l lig h t
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
L ig h tin g
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
N o is e
N o n e a t a ll
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A lo t
Environment:
3.1 How frequently in the last month or two has the temperature been:
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Too high
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Too low
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Changeable
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Cold in the morning
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
3.2 How frequently have your found the air:
Draughty
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Stuffy
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Smelly
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Dusty
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
3.3 About natural light - How often have you had problems from the
following:
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
Too little daylight
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Too much daylight
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Reflections on screen
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Discomfort from the sun
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
3.3 About artificial light - How often have you had problems from the
following:
Too dark ambience
Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Often
Too dark to work
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Reflections on screen
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
No control over the
lighting
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
3.4 How much of a nuisance is the noise from:
Sustainable
Architecture Applied
to Replicable Public
Access Buildings
www.sara-project.net
Contract:
TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/50
3118
Outside
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Atria
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Other people
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
Office equipment
Never
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Often
4. Your ability to work:
To what extent have the following affected your normal level of
productivity in the last two weeks:
Too hot in the
morning
No
effect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Badly affected
Too hot in the
afternoon
No
effect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Badly affected
Too cold in the
morning
No
effect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Badly affected
Too cold in the
afternoon
No
effect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Badly affected
Glare from
window
No
effect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Badly affected
We are very interested to hear any comments that you may have
concerning the issues raised in this questionnaire. Please use this
space (and the back of the form if necessary) to make any comments
you wish.
Thank you for your time.
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