The Foundations of Farmstead Planning (Read-Only)

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The Foundations of
Farmstead Planning
Brian J. Holmes
Nolan Andersen
Extension Agricultural Engineer
Dairy and Livestock Agent
Biological Systems Engineering Dept.
College of Agricultural & Life Sciences
University of Wisconsin - Madison
Dane County
University of Wisconsin - Extension
Facilities Plan Promotes:
1. Labor savings
2. Natural ventilation
3. Surface drainage
4. Convenient materials handling
5. Space for expansion
6. Avoids Mistakes
What is the Advisor’s Role?
* Learn to listen/read between the lines
* Identify the family’s vision
* Identify the short term goals
* Help the dairyman recognize the
multitude of options
* Help dairyman learn more about viable options
- Identify other advisors/consultants
- Visit others to view and discuss
- Provide reading materials
- Encourage discussions with vendors
* Identify benefits and limitations of viable options
* Start the planning process
Steps to Dairy Modernization
Write down goals
Hone management skills
Feasibility analysis
Yes
Management
Land Base
Economic
Goals still OK?
No
Reconsider and rewrite goals
Develop business plan
Develop facilities & farmstead plans and costs
Check against feasibility analysis and goals
Obtain financing
Contract for facilities
SOME PLANNING STEPS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Establish Goals
Learn Alternatives
Discuss With Others
Draw Farmstead Layout
Stake The Site
Drive The Site
WHAT IS A FARMSTEAD PLAN?
Scale Drawing - Plan View
*Buildings
- current
- future
* Well(s)
* Streams
* Highways
* Drives
* Septic(s)
* North Arrow
* Topographic Lines
* Manure Storage
* Drainage Channels
* Sink Holes/Ledges
* Feed Storage
* Utilities
* etc.
FARMSTEAD PLAN =
COMMUNICATION TOOL
* Lender
* Equipment Suppliers
* Contractor
* Utility Companies
* Partner(s)
* Subsequent Buyer
* Excavator
* Regulator
Planning for the Future:
Short Range Plan:
Must be Compatible with
Long Range Plan
This Month’s Decisions Have
an Effect for 20 – 50 Years!
Planning for the Future:
Overvalued facilities may
unnecessarily anchor you
at an existing farmstead
Constraints of existing
facilities may limit the
technologies you can use
unless you make major
changes and expense.
PLANNING FACTORS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Adequate Water Supply
Drainage
Production Factors
Climatic Factors
Off Farm Factors
Ideal Farmstead Location
* Center of Land Base
* Top of Hill
* Distant From Streams
* Distant From Neighbors
* Good Source of Groundwater
* Moderate-Heavy Soil Texture
Build on a Knoll NOT in a Hole
Diversions
Diversion
Prevailing Wind Directions for July
About
18%
% Time Calm
5% Increments
Transition Facilities Needs:
1. Animal housing
2. Efficient milking
3. Feed storage/Efficient feeding
4. Manure storage - maybe
EARLY 1970’S
Neighbor
House
Machine
Shed
N
Stall Barn
Yard
Neighbor
House
Machine
Shed
1977
Stall Barn
Yard
Stall Barn
Addition
N
Neighbor
1980
N
Manure
Storage
House
Machine
Shed
Stall Barn
Silos
Stall Barn
Addition
Neighbor
Stall Barn
After Fire
Machine
Shed
1983
N
Manure
Free Stall Storage
Barn
Silos
Looking West about 1985
Stall Barn
Freestall Barn
House
Neighbor
1987
Calf
Barn
Stall Barn
Free Stall
Barn
Machine
Shed
N
1990
N
Neighbor
Neighbor
Home Farm
Neighbor
1991
Calf
Barn
Dry &
Special Needs
Machine
Shed
Free Stall
N
1991
N
Feed Pad
300 Free Stalls
Parlor
Manure Storage
Neighbor
Neighbor
1994 - 1995
N
Bunkers
360 Free Stalls
Parlor
2 Manure
Storages
Neighbor
Neighbor
2000 - 2001
Heifers
Milking & Dry
& Transition
w Parlor
Bunkers
Parlor
Manure
Storages
Neighbor
Neighbor
N
Material Flows
What Has to Flow?
Feed
Water
Animals
Manure
Milking Center Wastewater
Milk
Sunshine
Precipitation
Air
Personnel
Visitors
Service Companies
Electricity/Fuel
Figure A. 50 Cow Farmstead Plan
Base Case
3
2
1
0
9
8
7
6
5
Heifers
40 x 80 Machine
Shed
4
3
N
2
House
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
34 x 110
Stall Barn
8
9
0
1
Figure B. 1000 Cow Farmstead Plan
Phase 5
3
Commodity Shed
5
2
5
1
5
4
3
4
4
2
3
2
4
5
0
Manure Cells
320 COW FS-4
Horizontal
Silos
4
2
MP
HA
5
8
7
4
5
Special Needs
9
6
Heifers & Dry
Cows
320 COW FS-3
5
2
5
1
Treatment
Calves
N
1
2
3
5
320 COW FS-5
4
1
2
Maternity
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
3
Treatment
5 4 2
4
4
1
House
5
6
7
2
1
8
9
0
Figure C. 100 Cow Farmstead Plan
Phase 1
3
2
1
0
9
8
7
Silo Bag
Pad
1
6
Special
Needs
1
5
Heifers
4
1
N
1
2
3
1
100 Mature Cows
& Heifers
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
2
1
Calf Hutch
Pad
4
3
House
3
4
5
6
7
Parlor
8
9
0
1
Figure D. 200 Cow Farmstead Plan
3
Phase 2
2
1
Commodity Shed
Manure
Cell
0
9
2
2
2
8
Horizontal
Silos
7
Silo Bag
Pad 1
200 Mature
Cows &
Heifers
6
5
1
2
Heifers
Calves
1
2
N
Maternity
2
1
2
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
1
3
Parlor
2
House
5
6
7
1
8
9
0
Figure E. 300 Cow Farmstead Plan
Phase 3
3
2
1
3
Commodity Shed
0
Manure Cells
9
2
3
2
2
Horizontal
Silos
8
7
HA MP
6
Heifers & Dry
Cows
320 COW FS-3
5
1
2
Treatment
Calves
2
N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
3
1
Maternity
2
1
4
1
Treatment
House
7
2
1
8
9
0
Figure F. 600 Cow Farmstead Plan
Phase 4
3
2
Commodity Shed
1
4
3
4
4
2
3
2
4
0
Manure Cells
320 COW FS-4
Horizontal
Silos
9
4
2
8
HA MP
7
4
6
Heifers & Dry
Cows
320 COW FS-3
5
1
2
Treatment
Calves
4
N
2
3
1
2
Maternity
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
3
Treatment
4 2
1
4
1
House
5
6
7
2
1
8
9
0
Figure G. 1000 Cow Farmstead Plan
Phase 5
3
2
5
5
Commodity Shed
1
5
4
3
4
4
2
3
4
5
0
Manure Cells
320 COW FS-4
Horizontal
Silos
HA MP
4
2
2
MP
5
8
7
4
5
Special Needs
9
6
Heifers & Dry
Cows
320 COW FS-3
5
5
1
2
Treatment
Calves
N
4
5
320 COW FS-5
2
3
1
2
Maternity
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
3
Treatment
5 4 2
1
4
1
House
5
6
7
2
1
8
9
0
Steps to Avoid Excessive Costs:
1. Establish facility needs for
10-20 year horizon
2. Establish facility needs for
the transition phase
3. Evaluate existing structures on
the basis of how they can meet
transition and future needs
4. Compare initial and annual costs
of remodel vs new construction
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