FC-DISTRICT - Sustainable Places

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New -CHP network
technologies
for energy efficient and
sustainable districts
FC-DISTRICT: An evaluation of energy
saving potentials for districts served by
distributed micro-cogeneration units”
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Contents
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•
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Overview – Scope of FC-DISTRICT project
Description of FC-DISRICT system
Demonstration site
Energy saving and environmental assessment
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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FC-DISTRICT: Overview
New µ-CHP network technologies for
energy efficient and sustainable districts
• Project Coordinator: Mostostal Warszawa S.A. (Poland)
• Work programme topic addressed: EeB.NMP.2010-2
New technologies for energy efficiency at district level
• Technical Coordinator: National Technical University of
Athens (NTUA-Greece)
• 22 partners from 11 European countries
• Duration: 4 years (starting date: 01.09.2010)
• Total budget: 11,837,575 € (funding 8,000,000 €)
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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FC-DISTRICT: Consortium
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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FC-DISTRICT: Concept
FC-DISTRICT optimizes and implements an innovative
energy production and distribution concept
for sustainable and energy efficient
districts exploiting decentralized
co-generation coupled with
optimized building and
district heat storage
and distribution
network targeting
reduction in annual
primary energy consumption
at district level up to 60%.
It introduces a new paradigm in energy
efficiency by developing systems, materials,
technologies and methodologies specifically
intended for integration at district level.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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FC-DISTRICT: Main objectives
Development of new products/solutions:
• Micro-CHP System based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
• Innovative method for food waste exploitation
• External Thermal Insulation Component Systems (ETICS)
• District heating pipe with improved insulation
• Wireless/hybrid communication network
Integration of the new products into one solution for district –
FC-DISTRICT system – optimizing and tailoring the characteristics
of the energy and power distribution systems to meet the
energy and power demand of various building and district
typologies.
Validation of the system by means of real scale demonstrations.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Innovative features of FC-DISTRICT system
• Prefabricated External Thermal Insulation Composite System
for retrofitted buildings,
• Highly efficient energy production in micro Solid Oxide Fuel
Cell units,
• Flexibility of heat and electricity production,
• Dynamic and efficient heat transportation between
buildings,
• Usage of renewables (mixture of natural and biogas),
• Wireless managment and control system optimizing district
energy consumption.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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ETICS: Technical specifications
 Prefabricated sandwich EPS-Vacuum Insulation
Panels
 Adhesive and basecoat
mortar for application without
reinforcing mesh.
 Accessories: hammer dowel with plastic steel
nail, free of thermal bridges
 Installation procedure:
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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External insulation systems
for retrofitting and new buildings
The new ETICS allows a rapid modernization of an
existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency, by
increasing the insulation performance of a building
envelope, thereby reducing heat demand for heating
purposes.
Implementation of the new ETICS allows to adjust the
building's energy demand for cooperation with a µ-CHP
units.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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-CHP based on high temperature SOFC
Micro-co-generation systems,
producing both heat and
electricity in a certain ratio to
each other, provide potential
reductions in carbon emissions
and costs by generating both heat
and electricity locally with
efficient fuel use and by offsetting
the use of centrally-generated
electricity from the grid.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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SOFC unit prototype
• FC-District SOFC system model was presented at
HANNOVER MESSE, April 4-8 2011.
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Building fitted with µ-CHP energy sources
Implementation of the µ-CHP unit into the building
enables efficient heat and electricity production in
cogeneration. Because the energy is produced at
the place of consumption with option of
transfering it to the network, the heat loses are
minimized and the overall system efficiency is
lifted up.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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New district heating piping solution
Developed piping solution enables
reduction of heat loses on energy
transportation
between
FCDISTRICT buildings, as well as it
reduces the time needed to
execute construction works. In
consequence the overall system
energy efficiency is higher and it
significantly contributes to the
profitability of using FC-DISTRICT
system solutions.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Dynamic heat exchange
between building and district
The hydraulic layout of the FC-DISTRICT system
enables it, to dynamically transfer energy from one
building to another with minimum energy loses.
The developed solution makes the system
integrate perfectly within an area of different type
of buildings, with different characteristics of heat
consumption. Therefore district is becoming more
independent and even more reliable.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Communication needed for control
The conventional approach to sensory
networks assumes a homogeneous
network infrastructure whereas most reallife scenarios are based upon the use of
hybrid networks. This creates a number of
issues related to the reliability of the
received data, localization and remote
calibration of the sensors and provision of
the same quality of service to wireless and
wired sensor nodes.
A prototype hybrid network has been
developed and implemented.
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Management at district level
Management and control system implemented in
the FC-DISTRICT solution enables to manage and
optimize operation of the energy production and
distribution within the local network, so the whole
system works in the most efficient way. Also in
case of any emergency, it lets the district manager
know what is the problem and enables quick
reaction. Additional advantage of the FC-DISTRICT
solution is wireless comunication between
buildings and district manager office.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Scope of district scale demo in Poland
Real scale demonstration of FC-DISTRICT system in Poland
Features of
FC-DISTRICT
system
covered
EXTERNAL
INSULATION
SYSTEMS FOR
RETROFITTING
AND NEW
BUILDINGS
BUILDING FITTED
WITH SOFC
ENERGY SOURCES
NEW DISTRICT
HEATING PIPING
SOLUTION
DYNAMIC HEAT
EXCHANGE
BETWEEN
BUILDING AND
DISTRICT
MANAGEMENT
AT DISTRICT LEVEL
Items
needed to
demonstrate
a feature
performance of
external walls in
one building
installation of
3 SOFC units in
3 buildings
exchange of
existing old
district heating
piping with newly
developed pipes
performance of
new isolated
district heating
system
connecting 3
buildings
performance of
wireless hybrid
communication
solution
monitoring
system
adaptation of
boiler room
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
implementation
of control
algorythms
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FC-DISTRICT:Main demonstration site –
Mory, Warsaw-Poland
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Real scale demonstration of the system
micro-CHP units
local (isolated) district heating
wireless/hybrid communication
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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External insulation systems
for retrofitting and new buildings
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Building fitted with µ-CHP energy sources
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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New district heating piping solution
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Dynamic heat exchange
between building and district
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Dynamic heat exchange
between building and district
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Decision support for FC-DISTRICT system
acceptance: Environmental and Energy Assessment
Overall Scope:
• Estimation of the Life Cycle environmental impacts –
abatement potentials.
• Assessment of issues regarding necessary
infrastructure/conditions in which the FC-District
concept is expected to be implemented:
• Development of a decision support framework,
considering subjective attitudes from stakeholders
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Energy and Environmental Assessment
Energy and Life cycle model (raw materials +
manufacturing + operation) of the FC-District concept
system:
a. Energy Assessment for various types of districts (input for
life cycle models)
b. Comparison to a conventional life cycle model
c. Examination of two district types (residential, financial
center)
d. Examination of two operation strategies (full scale,
modulating)
• Incorporating the environmental impact associated to the
construction of the district heat network
• Calculation of additional environmental indices
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Environmental assessment highlights
Heat Demand Side
Operating Strategies
Heat Supply Side
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Environmental assessment highlights
Overall scheme of modelling and simulation methodology
•
Maria Founti
• Simulation algorithm in MATLAB environment
Output is processed in SimaPRO 7.3 LCA software  LC Impact indices
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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DEPOSIT: Heat Supply side Modeling
Input data – assumptions:
o Occupancy profiles
o Thermal characteristics of
building types
o District composition
 MATLAB based
 Data: Trnsys 17
 Sum of hourly values of the
4 building types
 District:
o
o
o
o
Single family houses
Multifamily houses
Hotels
Offices
Dimitrios Giannopoulos
Maria Founti
RV5, 2-3 July 2014
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Energy assessment highlights
Simulation results: Annual district energy balance
Reference Case
Maria Founti
m-CHP Case
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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DEPOSIT: m-CHP operating strategies
Scenario 1: Stable (at full output with a shutdown summer
period).
• Excess heat is stored in the buffer tanks. If the thermal
demand exceeds the thermal output, the storage tank is
checked if heat is available.
• The remaining demand after the buffer tank contribution is
covered by backup boilers in the district. Units shut down
only in the summer period.
• 3 individual unit groups, with 3 shut-down periods
respectively.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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DEPOSIT: m-CHP operating strategies
Scenario 2: Intermittent m-CHP operation (individual control of the m-CHP
units with shutdowns according to achieving the minimum primary energy at
the next timestep).
• Units can be shut down (or ramped down if shutdown is not an option), if
demand is too low.
• Units can be divided into 3 main groups.
– The first two groups can be switched on and off or modulated simultaneously
with no option of individual control.
– The third group can individually control its units. Units can be shut down with a
10% resolution. If the demand is very low, resolution increases up to 1% of the
units to follow the demand. In the current simulations are units are assigned to
group 3.
• The strategy in this scenario can be described as heat and primary energy
following. Then the algorithm determines how many units shall operate at
this timestep to minimize primary energy.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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DEPOSIT: m-CHP operating strategies
Scenario 3: Intermittent m-CHP operation with demand forecasting (7
hour optimization)
• Same as Scen2, but operation changes according to forecasting
• Heat demand for the following 6 timesteps is foreseen . Primary energy
factor is also foreseen for the 7th timestep ahead.
• Matlab neural network toolbox is used for the forecasting, with
parameters such as historical data (previous values), weather forecast
data etc.
• Goal is to reduce the primary
energy consumed in the 7hour
period.
Decision
strategy
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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DEPOSIT: Representative Results
Hourly
residential
district heat
demand
and supply
frequency
for
operation
scenarios 2
and 3
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SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Environmental assessment highlights
Simulation results: Annual district energy balance (modul. oper.)
Residential
•
•
•
Financial center
Financial Center district: 3 times more heat intensive than residential
Less mCHP contribution due to installation space limitations
No storage loss, but no storage contribution in financial district!  Little
fluctuation in district heat demand
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Environmental assessment highlights
Comparative LCA results: Reference vs mCHP case - Residential district
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Significant contribution of
Natural Gas supply chain
•
Contribution of materials –
manufacturing is significant
only in terms of noxious
emissions
(Acidification
potential index)  Nickel
production (required for
SOFCs) is NOx intensive!
•
All electricity production
displaces equal amount of
centrally
produced
electricity (German el. mix).
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Environmental assessment highlights
Comparative LCA results: Reference vs mCHP case - Residential district
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Small reduction in
GWP (from 51 to
46%) and Fossil
Fuel (from 7 to 5%)
savings, due to the
incorporation of heat
network construction
•
The
acidification
potential is actually
increased, due to
NOx
indirectly
emitted during Ni
production
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Environmental assessment highlights
Comparative LCA results: Reference vs mCHP case - Residential district
•
•
•
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
Results are highly sensitive
to the CO2 “load” of grid
kWh!
Assuming identical thermal
loads and districts in three
European countries with
extremely
different
grid
electricity production mix
Very little chance to achieve
CO2 savings in Norway,
however in Poland situation
is quite the opposite.
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Environmental assessment highlights
Comparative LCA results: Reference vs mCHP case – Financial district
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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Small reduction in GWP
(from 26 to 25%) and
Fossil Fuel (from 7.3 to
7.1%) savings, due to
the incorporation of heat
network construction
•
The
acidification
potential is reduced,
due
to
the
less
contribution of mCHP
(installation
space
limitation
in
office
buildings)
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Environmental assessment highlights
Comparative LCA results: Reference vs mCHP case – Financial district
•
•
•
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
Results are highly sensitive
to the CO2 “load” of grid
kWh!
Assuming identical thermal
loads and districts in three
European countries with
extremely
different
grid
electricity production mix
Less extreme differences
than the residential district,
due
to
lower
mCHP
contribution.
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Environmental assessment highlights
Conclusions:
• The environmental advantage and fossil energy saving of the mCHP
case is realised through avoiding emissions when the m-CHP
electricity displaces central generation.
• However: All m-CHP generation is assumed to displace central
generation
No confidence exists in estimating how “dirty” is the grid kWh at any
specific moment
• The acidification potential may be indirectly boosted in the m-CHP
case, due to NOx emissions during Ni production.
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
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New -CHP network
technologies
for energy efficient and
sustainable districts
• Web site
http://www.fc-district.eu/
Thank you for your attention
Maria Founti
SUSTAINABLE PLACES 2014
42
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