Chapter 40 Study Guide Answers

advertisement
Chapter 40
Study Guide and Notes
1. & 2. How has natural selection/evolution influenced
animal body SIZE and FORM?
• Physical laws – constrain what natural selection
can “invent”
– Govern strength, diffusion, movement, heat exchange
and therefore limit animal forms
Ex. Convergence of body forms in water
• Size – thicker skeletons are needed as size
increases
• Surface area:Volume – regulates size of individual
cells
– Diffusion across membranes
– Thermoregulation of body heat
How do the following organisms exchange materials with
their environment? How does their structure help this?
• Amoeba
– Entire surface is in contact
with the environment
• Hydra
– Simple organization where all
or nearly all cells are in
contact with the environment
• A flatworm
– Most cells are in direct
contact with environment
• Whale
– Extensively branched or
folded surfaces to increase
surface area
– Interstitial fluid, blood,
How are complex body plans advantageous over
simple body plans?
• Can maintain stable
internal environment
while living in a variable
external environment
– External skeleton
(protection)
– Sensory organs (obtain
detailed information)
– Internal digestion (control
release of stored energy)
– Filtration system (adjust
composition of interstitial
fluid bathing animal’s cells)
What is the difference between a
Regulator and a Conformer?
• Regulator
– Uses internal control
mechanisms to regulate
internal change in the
face of external
fluctuation.
– Mammals
• Conformer
– Its internal condition
conforms to external
changes
– Reptiles
Give an example of negative feedback in detail
What is the difference between an
endotherm and an ectotherm
• Organisms that gain
most of their heat from
metabolism (cellular
respiration)
• Mammals and birds
• Organisms that gain
most of their heat from
external sources
• Amphibians, reptiles,
many fish, most
invertebrates
List 5 adaptations for thermoregulation
• Radiation
• Evaporation heat loss
• Convection-- Movement of air or liquid past a surface
– A breeze to cool organism down
– Dilation/constriction of blood vessels
• Conduction – direct transfer
• Insulation
– Controlled seasonally
– Amount of hair, feathers, fat or raising the hair/feathers
– Oil secretions to waterproof
• Circulatory adaptations
– Dilation/construction of blood vessels
– Countercurrent exchange
• Behavioral responses
• Adjusting Metabolic heat production
– Shivering, nonshivering thermogenesis, brown fat
Explain countercurrent exchange
• The flow of adjacent fluids
in opposing directions that
maximizes transfer rates of
heat or solutes
• Blood vessels are arranged
antiparallel to one another
• As warm blood passes
through arteries, it transfers
heat to the colder boold
returning from the
extremities in the veins
• Heat exchange will occur
the entire length of the
exchanger
Basal Metabolic Rate vs. Size
Metabolic Rate per kg of body mass vs. body size
Download
Related flashcards

Death gods

14 cards

Rodenticides

28 cards

Biology

38 cards

Create Flashcards