Muhammad was a religious & political leader. He had no son to fill in for him after he died. After his death, his father in law, Abu Bakr, a wealthy merchant, became caliph Islamic movement grew under Abu’s rule. In 636 Arabs defeated Byzantine army in a dust storm at Yarmuk. 4yrs later they took control of Syria. Egypt and northern Africa was added to Arab empire by 642 After Abu's death in 656 Ali, Muhammad's brother in law, became caliph. He was assassinated 5yrs after ruling. General Mu’awiyah- known for outstanding virtue: only used force when necessary. He established the Umayyad dynasty. Arab armies- conquered and converted Berbers. (pastoral people living along the Mediterranean coast of northern Africa) 710- Berbers and Arabs combined forces, and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and occupied southern Spain 725- most Spain became Muslim 732- Arab forces defeated at the battle of Tours in Gaul (now France) 717- Muslim force launched attack Non-Arab background- Persians, Byzantines Hussein- 2nd son of Ali & son in law of Muhammad. Led important revolt that took place in present day Iraq early in the Umayyad period. Shiite Muslims- accepted only the decedents of Ali as the true ruler of Islam. Sunni Muslims- didn’t agree with Umayyad rule but accepted the Umayyad as rulers In 762, the Abbasid built a new capital city at Baghdad, on the Tigris River, far to the east In 750, Abu al-Abbas, a descendant of Muhammad’s uncle overthrew the Umayyad dynasty & set up the Abbasid dynasty, which lasted until 1258 The Abbasid dynasty experienced a period of splendid rule Seljuk Turks- nomadic people from central Asia that had converted to Islam and prospered as soldiers for the Abbasid caliphate 1055- Turkish leader captured Baghdad and took command of the empire His title was sultan, or holder of power 1071- Byzantines foolishly challenged the Turks and the Turks took over most of the Anatolian Peninsula The Christian states and the Islamic world feared and disliked each other, many Europeans agreed beginning a series of crusades. 1169- Saladin, a new Muslim ruler took control over Egypt and made himself sultan, thus ending the Christian states in the area. 1187, Saladin’s army invaded the kingdom of Jerusalem and destroyed the Christian forces there.