Creation of an arab empire

 Muhammad was a religious & political leader. He
had no son to fill in for him after he died. After his
death, his father in law, Abu Bakr, a wealthy
merchant, became caliph
 Islamic movement grew under Abu’s rule. In 636
Arabs defeated Byzantine army in a dust storm at
Yarmuk. 4yrs later they took control of Syria. Egypt
and northern Africa was added to Arab empire by
 After Abu's death in 656 Ali, Muhammad's brother in
law, became caliph. He was assassinated 5yrs after
 General Mu’awiyah- known for outstanding virtue: only used force
when necessary. He established the Umayyad dynasty.
 Arab armies- conquered and converted Berbers. (pastoral people living
along the Mediterranean coast of northern Africa)
 710- Berbers and Arabs combined forces, and crossed the Strait of
Gibraltar and occupied southern Spain
 725- most Spain became Muslim
 732- Arab forces defeated at the battle of Tours in Gaul (now France)
 717- Muslim force launched attack
 Non-Arab background- Persians, Byzantines
 Hussein- 2nd son of Ali & son in law of Muhammad. Led important
revolt that took place in present day Iraq early in the Umayyad period.
 Shiite Muslims- accepted only the decedents of Ali as the true ruler of
 Sunni Muslims- didn’t agree with Umayyad rule but accepted the
Umayyad as rulers
 In 762, the Abbasid built a new capital city at
Baghdad, on the Tigris River, far to the east
 In 750, Abu al-Abbas, a descendant of Muhammad’s
uncle overthrew the Umayyad dynasty & set up the
Abbasid dynasty, which lasted until 1258
 The Abbasid dynasty experienced a period of
splendid rule
 Seljuk Turks- nomadic people from central Asia that
had converted to Islam and prospered as soldiers for
the Abbasid caliphate
 1055- Turkish leader captured Baghdad and took
command of the empire
 His title was sultan, or holder of power
 1071- Byzantines foolishly challenged the Turks and
the Turks took over most of the Anatolian Peninsula
 The Christian states and the Islamic world feared and
disliked each other, many Europeans agreed
beginning a series of crusades.
 1169- Saladin, a new Muslim ruler took control over
Egypt and made himself sultan, thus ending the
Christian states in the area.
 1187, Saladin’s army invaded the kingdom of
Jerusalem and destroyed the Christian forces there.
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