Tundra - 18-097

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THE TUNDRA
Location
Tundra biomes are most
commonly found in the
Northern hemisphere.
Tundra covers
approximately 20% of the
Earth, situated at
latitudes 55° to 70° North.
Tundra biomes appear in cold areas, and tundra are usually barren
treeless places. Specific tundra areas are the Arctic, Antarctica, areas in
Northern Canada, Greenland, and areas in Northern Russia.
Climate
Tundra is the coldest and driest
biome in the world. In the winter 50˚ F and in the summer it rarely
reaches over 50˚ F, just enough to
thaw the surface. It hardly ever
rains, and the rainfall can be about
10” every year. It is usually very
cloudy, and so the tundra is not
exposed to much sunlight.
Some of the
Caribou
Scientific Name: Rangifer Tarandus
Commonly Called: Caribou, Reindeer.
Snowy Owl
Ermine
Scientific Name: Mustela Erminea
Commonly Called: Short tailed weasel, Stout, Royskatt
Ermines live in
Northern Biomes,
like taigas or
tundras. They are
well adapted to
harsh conditions.
Some of the
Bearberries
Arctic Moss
Arctic Poppy
Amazingly, the barren tundra land has
produced amazing yellow flowers. This is
an arctic poppy, and over the yeas of
living in the tundra it has learned to adapt
well. It can bloom for a short period of
time in the summer.
This moss does not need that much
sunlight to survive. The Calliergon
giganteum (arctic moss) is an
underwater plant that lives in bogs and
damp areas. It is a bryophyte, and has
tiny rootlets instead of roots. The
leaves are about one cell thick.
Factors of Tundra
Abiotic
• Temperature: -50˚ F to 50˚
F
• Rainfall
• Mineral composition
• Season
• Altitude
• Cloud coverage
• Angle of sunlight
• Wind (strong in the tundra)
• Permafrost (only top layer of soil
thaws in summer; so trees cannot
grow)
• Rocks
Biotic
• Plants like Arctic Mosses,
bearberries, willows, etc.
• Animals in the tundra
include Arctic Foxes, polar
bears, lemmings, ermines,
snowy owls, caribous, voles.
Resources
• Some resources include mining. There is a lot of mining in the
tundra, and substances like coal and gold are found. The tundra is
very rich in mineral resources.
• Oil drilling is very popular. The Tundra is full of oil, and oil drilling is
done in the tundra a lot.
How has Science Helped?
Benefits
Science has located where
the oil and mining areas
are, so as to find them
quicker. Also, if they didn’t
have science and just tried
mining or drilling in random
areas, a lot of the tundra
would have been destroyed
by now.
Limitations
Unfortunately, science still
doesn’t know how to
restore the tundra areas
once they have destroyed
it. Many of the tundras are
getting ruined and polluted,
and science doesn’t know
how to solve this problem.
Affect of Human Activity
• Major human activities include oil
drilling. When we drill for oil, we
destroy the surrounding
environment. Many plant life and
animals are also killed, and habitats
are ruined. This also effects the food
chain.
• When mining, acids and other
forms of pollution are wasted, and
that also pollutes the surrounding
environment. It pollutes the air
considerably, as well as the land.
The noise drives animals away from
their habitats, and population
decrease.
Interactions
ENVIRONMENT
As mentioned before, when mining and oil drilling, there is tons of pollution. Dusts and toxic gases
are released that cause air pollution. These dusts also settle on neighboring lakes, ponds, (there
aren’t many) and this makes in inhabitable for fish, plants, and other water creatures. It also
produces loud noises, which drive animals away from their homes. They do not have a habitat, and
some die. In addition, when one animal is killed, the whole food chain is affected. One of the
greatest threats are oil spillage. This can damage tundra to a great extent.
MONEY
When the oil is drilled, and the minerals are mined, they are sold and a lot of money is made. In
addition, while working for the oil/minerals, workers are needed. This causes for people to be
employed, and get paid. In conclusion, by drilling oil and mining, a lot of money is made for a variety
of people.
SOCIAL (PEOPLE)
The oil drilled is used in many various ways, for cooking, cars, and without it the world would be
really different. Minerals mined are also used for medicine, and this helps people’s health. A lot of
cures have been made.
PICTURES
BiblioGraphy
•
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_YZK1E_LNzfA/TATKBQxkH5I/AAAAAAAABB0/0nLf9YkQ0s4/s1600/Tundra.JPG
• http://www.petersonspointlake.com/photography/tundra_scape01.jpg
• http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/data/media/17/tundra-damage_4357.jpg
• http://www.ri.net/schools/West_Warwick/manateeproject/Tundra/images/Tundra%20yellow%20flower.jpg
• http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/Images/flower.jpg
• http://edu.glogster.com/media/4/18/28/65/18286549.jpg
• http://www.animalstown.com/animals/e/ermine/coloring-pages/ermine-coloring-page-1-s.jpg
• http://www.clipartreview.com/_gallery/_TN/r_213.gif
• http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_hGIzWPci30k/SmZcsbEYUpI/AAAAAAAAALA/b4ipUrYNYG0/s400/lemming.png
• http://www.picturesof.net/_images/Bushy_Arctic_Fox_Royalty_Free_Clipart_Picture_090121-131413864048.jpg
• http://www.justanimal.org/images/caribou-2.jpg
• http://www.bcadventure.com/adventure/wilderness/birds/snowyowl.jpg
BiblioGraphy
INFORMATION
• http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113340/text/impact/impact.tundra.environment.oil.html
• http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/biomes/tundra.html
• http://www.ehow.com/info_8005700_yellow-tundra-flower.html
• http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm - Plants, Animals, Climate
• http://www.arkive.org/arctic-poppy/papaver-laestadianum/
•
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