Unit3: Human and Physical Systems

Unit 3: Human and Physical Systems
Part B- Human Environment Interaction
Lessons 1-4
Video- Geography: Movement and
Human-Environment Interaction
 Geography: Movement and Human-Environment Interaction
Human Environment Interaction
Lesson 1- Geographic Factors
Geographic Factors
 Geographic factors affect human settlement.
 Human settlement and cultural development are shaped
by geographic features like mountains, deserts, and water.
 Other factors that affect cultural development are climate,
location, topography, water resources, and natural resources.
 The climate of a region affects where people settle and
how they survive.
 People build their homes and grow food differently in
dry, hot regions than in cooler, wet regions.
 Sudden changes in climate can bring events such as floods,
droughts, and famine.
How Climate Impacts People
 People do not live on the continent of Antarctica because its
climate is too cold.
 Mexico has a warm, dry climate.
 People who visit there will want to wear light-weight
 People in hot, dry climates, such as a desert, have to make
houses out of whatever they can find.
 Native Americans who lived in the dry Southwest built their
houses out of mud or clay.
 The mud and clay was easy to find in the dry region.
 Location: where the region is affects how the culture
develops and how history unfolds.
 Secluded islands have less cultural and historical
influences than a land-locked country.
 Location also affects what areas of a region get settled first.
 Typically, those lands closest to water are settled first, and then the
culture expands outwards.
How Location Impacts People
 Food
 People who live by the sea may eat more fish than people
who live inland.
 People who live inland often farm.
 Different kinds of plants and animals are natural to different
 People have to learn to plant crops that will grow in their
How Location Impacts People
 Clothing
 People who live in the North wear warmer clothes with a
lot of layers, while people who live in the South wear lighter
 The climate of a location helps people decide what to
wear to be comfortable.
How Location Impacts People
 Shelter
 People use different materials to build their homes in
different locations.
 People near oceans sometimes put their houses on poles to
protect from flooding.
 People in colder climates have thicker walls than people
who live in warm climates.
How Location Impacts People
 Transportation
 People use different ways to get around in different
 Ancient people used boats to travel around and trade with other
 In the Pacific Ocean, small island countries also use boats to go
from island to island.
 In the United States, people use cars, trucks, and airplanes for
How Location Impacts People
 Recreation
 People do different things for fun in different locations.
 In the mountains, people ski on the snow.
 On the coast, people play in the ocean and build sandcastles.
 In the forest, people can hike and explore.
 Location helps decide what you do for fun.
 Topography: the physical layout of a region.
 The locations of mountains, valleys, and deserts affect
where people settle and how they travel.
 Mountains and deserts also give natural barriers to other
cultures, keeping people from traveling through or over them
without technologically advanced transportation.
 Water: cultures have been settling near water for
 Water allows for transportation, leading to trading and
exchanging of cultural ideas and objects.
 Lakes and rivers also provide water for drinking and for
growing crops.
Natural Resources
 Natural resources: people grow and create different
products based on the natural resources available to
 One culture may develop and trade timber; another might
sell oil.
 The natural resources that are available affect how a culture
survives and thrives.
Human Environment Interaction
Lesson 2- Types of Systems
Types of Systems
 Physical and human systems have shaped the way that
human societies develop.
 Physical systems are natural characteristics such as rivers and
 Human systems are manmade characteristics such as political
boundaries and trade routes.
Patterns of Migration
 After the last ice age, glaciers retreated in northern
 Animal herds moved north because the climate was now
 Hunter-gatherers followed these herds, migrating north
 Pigs and camels were first domesticated in the Middle
 When the climate dried and made farming and grazing very
hard, migration spread the animals to Africa and Asia.
Patterns of Migration
 Early humans arrived in Australia about 40,000–45,000 years
 They migrated through a land bridge from Southeast Asia.
Physical Environment and Natural
 In Ancient Egypt, the Nile River flooded each year in June.
 This flooding left nutrient-rich soil on the land.
 After the water levels decreased, the Egyptians would
plant their crops in the moist soil.
Physical Environment and Natural
 Greece is made up of many islands and peninsulas.
 The mainland of Greece is very mountainous and is very
difficult to travel over land.
 Because many of the Greek cities were on or near the sea,
the Greeks used sailing as their primary way to travel and
to ship goods.
Physical Environment and Natural
 Mesopotamia was very dry, but the people who lived there
were able to build canals to bring water from the Tigris
and Euphrates Rivers to irrigate their cropland.
 One of the ways in which the Mesopotamians used the nearby
rivers was for transportation.
 By using the sail, Mesopotamians were able to trade over long
Physical Environment and Natural
 The domestication of oxen was a major achievement of the
 Oxen were needed to provide the power to use plows.
 By being able to plow their fields, the Mesopotamians were able to have
very productive farmland.
Cultural Diffusion and Economic
 The Silk Road was a trade route that connected China to
civilizations further west.
 It was used to trade silk, spices, gold, ivory, exotic
animals, and other goods.
 It also spread beliefs between civilizations.
 The Silk Road brought profits to the traders who used it,
while towns and cities along the Silk Road made money
from the traders.
 Because of the importance of trade with Europe, the Chinese
needed a powerful empire to protect the Silk Road.
 The Silk Road remained prominent until improved ships
allowed the silk trade to continue by sea.
Cultural Diffusion and Economic
 The Persians made many improvements to their empire in
the form of canals, roads, and ports.
 Because of these improvements, trade grew throughout the
Near East region, making Persia a great trading center.
Cultural Diffusion and Economic
 Phoenicia's economy was based on trade, which spread
throughout the Mediterranean between 1200 BC and 900
 The Phoenicians developed the first written alphabet, which
the Greeks adopted through trading with them.
Cultural Diffusion and Economic
 The Mediterranean Sea was important to many groups of
people after the Phoenicians.
 It connected sailors and merchants from southern
Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East.
 Great powers such as the Roman Empire and the Ottoman
Empire also expanded through the Mediterranean.
Cultural Diffusion and Economic
 After the Crusades of the 11th to 13th centuries, trade
increased between the Muslim Middle East and
Christian Europe.
 The riches of new trade sources led to towns expanding.
Establishing and Maintaining Political
 Civilizations have created structures to establish or
defend their own political boundaries.
 One example of this is the Great Wall of China, which was
built between 220 and 206 B.C. to defend China's northern
border from invaders.
Establishing and Maintaining Political
 Ancient civilizations often used their military power in
order to expand their political boundaries.
 Ancient civilizations would need to have a strong military in
order to maintain control of their empires.
Establishing and Maintaining Political
 Bodies of water have also separated groups of people
throughout history.
 Many early civilizations and modern countries have had their
boundaries influenced by rivers or oceans.
 Early cultures in Japan and Britain were able to stay isolated
from their neighbors for generations because they lived on
Other Human Systems
 Ancient Egypt had a centralized government that
controlled almost all aspects of public life.
 When they were not farming, Egyptians were required to
build major projects for the pharaoh, who had absolute
power over their lives.
 Under the pharaoh, nobles and priests directed most
government affairs.
Types of Human Environment
Lesson 3
Human Environment Interaction
 Civilizations change because of many different reasons.
 They can change negatively because of warfare,
environmental changes, overpopulation,
disease, or political collapse.
 Sometimes these changes, along with new ideas, can bring
positive changes to civilizations.
 Warfare can lower the population of a civilization.
 It can cause hardships like a low food supply, or can
result in the takeover of one civilization by another.
 Civilizations have been completely wiped out because of
 The ancient civilization of the Indus Valley, for example,
survived for thousands of years before suddenly
 Other civilizations cropped up around the same time the Indus
Valley civilization disappeared.
 It is easy to assume they were attacked and destroyed.
 Ancient Egypt is another example of a civilization
disappearing because of warfare.
 The ancient Egyptians were conquered by the early
Roman Empire in 30 BC.
Environmental Change
 Environmental changes can come in many forms.
 Ice Ages create a unique climate, for example.
 Certain animals can thrive in the colder temperatures of the
Ice Age.
 When the Ice Age comes to an end, however, these same
animals will mostly likely die, forcing a civilization that hunts
the animals to find other things to eat.
Environmental Change
 Earthquakes or volcanoes can cause massive changes to
the environment, as well.
 They cause physical destruction and can mean a lower
population because of deaths.
 Overpopulation means an area that has too many people
living there.
 This can mean that people do not have enough space to
live, the area cannot produce enough food for all the
people to eat, or there is not enough water to drink.
 Overpopulation usually happens when more people are
being born than are dying.
 Many times overpopulation can lead to the collapse of a
civilization because people die of disease and starvation.
 Diseases t hreaten all civilizations.
 Sometimes a disease will hurt a civilization simply because
the people have no immunity to the disease.
 This can lead to a much smaller population or even wipe out
a civilization completely because they are not prepared to
handle the disease.
 The Black Death is an example of such a disease.
 It killed as many as 100 million people in the 1400s.
 The Black Death is believed to have decreased the population
of Europe by up to 60%.
 Another example is the impact of diseases brought by
European explorers on natives in the Americas.
 The Native American populations were greatly reduced because
they had no immunity to European diseases like smallpox.
Political Collapse
 Political collapse occurs when a government has lost
 At times people have overthrown governments by revolutions
because they were unhappy.
 Other times governments have simply declined in power
Political Collapse
 Ancient Rome, for example, was a great empire which
lasted for many centuries.
 Eventually, however, the power of the government declined,
so the civilization declined as well.
Unreliable Food Source
 Civilizations rely on certain types of food in order to
 When a food source becomes unreliable, a civilization must
make adjustments.
 They can move in search of other things to eat, or they may
adopt an agricultural society so they have more control
over their source of food.
 In either case, the civilization must adapt or they will not be able to
New Ideas
 New ideas can often improve how a civilization lives and
 New ideas can include technological advancements and
 New ideas can also mean new techniques in different areas
like art, architecture, literature, and labor.
New Ideas
 The Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries is a good
example of how new ideas can change a civilization.
 Beginning in Italy and later spreading throughout much of
Europe, the Renaissance brought about changes in art,
politics, science, religion, and education.
 The Renaissance is probably most well known for great works
of art by men such as Leonardo daVinci and
Human Environment Interaction
Lesson 4- Example: The Middle East
Human Environment InteractionThe Middle East
 The Middle East is an area of the world with large amounts
of oil reserves.
 However, the region's harsh, desert climate makes fresh
water scarce.
 Industrialization and oil extraction have had damaging
effects on the environment.
Geography and Climate
 The Middle East has a variety of geographic features,
including mountains, plains, plateaus, and coastlines.
 Some parts of Lebanon and Israel enjoy a temperate,
Mediterranean climate.
 Much of the region, however, is dominated by desert terrain
and dry climate.
 Most people do not live in these desert areas, living
instead living in cities that are built near sources of
 Middle Eastern climate is so dry that fresh water has become
a precious natural resource.
 Water is needed not only for drinking but also for
agriculture, which is still a major industry in most Middle
Eastern nations.
 Droughts and human development have had negative
effects on the few freshwater sources located in the Middle
 The Dead Sea, which is between Israel and Jordan, is
shrinking due to overuse.
 Some countries build dams to harvest the fresh water of
rivers, but this also decreases the amount of water that will
reach further down the river into other countries.
 Droughts and farming are causing deserts to actually
expand into land that had once been fertile, a process known
as desertification.
 Desalination is the process of removing salt from water to
make it drinkable.
 The process is very expensive and few Middle Eastern
countries can afford to invest in it.
 Due to Saudi Arabia's wealth from oil sales, it is one of few
Middle Eastern countries that can afford the process.
Other Natural Resources
 Despite the region's harsh climate, it has some of the
richest natural resources in the world.
 The Persian Gulf has historically been a source of fish and
pearls, which the people who live there use for trade.
 In modern times, discoveries of petroleum (oil) have brought
economic booms to the Middle Eastern nations that have access
to them.
 Oil is perhaps the most valuable export of several Middle Eastern
countries, and countries with access to oil in the Persian Gulf have
become wealthy.
 Some nations in the Middle East are changing to industrial-
based economies at a faster pace than they change their laws
to regulate industry.
 When this happens, factories do not have restrictions on air,
soil, or water quality, and their production can have damaging
effects on the environment.
 More commonly, environment in the Middle East is damaged
through oil extraction.
 Accidental oil spills can destroy both ecosystems and
environmental industries like fishing or tourism.
 Sometimes political conflict can destroy the
 This occurred in the Gulf War in 1991, when Iraq burned
Kuwait's oil wells and dumped more oil into the Persian Gulf,
an event from which the soldiers and the Gulf environment are
still suffering.
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