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The Ohio and National Economy: 2015
Mark Partridge
Presented at OSU VP Economic Outlook
December 1, 2014
Swank Chair in Rural-Urban Policy
Department of Agricultural, Environmental & Development Economics
Ohio State University Extension
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Swank Program Website for policy brief.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Introduction
• I remain optimistic on national growth as I have
in the Outlooks beginning in the Fall of 2012.
• The U.S. economy continues to expand.
• It has been 66 months since the official NBER
end of the Great Recession, or the 6th longest in
U.S. history. [but we are due for a recession )
• As of the October Employment Report released
in November, 2014 U.S. job growth is on track
to be the best year since 1999.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The 2014 figure is year over year from Oct. 2013 to Oct. 2014.
GDP Per-capita, adjusted for PPP
US
U.S. is richest advanced
economy
Canada,
Germany,
Advanced
Economies
China
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
• To put this in perspective, the 7 years before
the Great Recession were the slowest 7 years
of job creation since the Great Depression.
• The recovery from the Great Recession has
been frustrating for the lack of job creation that
is expected after such a severe recession.
• The general patterns of regional U.S. growth
that existed over the 1960-2007 period have
mostly reestablished themselves.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Introduction
What am I going to do today:
1. Discuss U.S. forecasts made by the IMF and
OECD.
2. Provide some idea of possible risks to the
forecasts. Discuss current hot policy topic in
enhancing growth: build infrastructure.
3. Describe how Ohio is performing relative to the
nation and to other Great Lakes States.
4. Briefly mention the 3Cs.
5. Provide some suggestions for policy.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
IMF and OECD Forecasts
• IMF and OECD forecasts are well respected
and usually are “cautious” in not being too far
from consensus.
• Among advanced economies, the U.S. has
been the recent leader and this is expected to
continue through 2016.
• Growth will not be robust as in the last-half of
the 20th Century, primarily due to low
productivity growth.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
IMF October 2014 GDP Growth Forecast: U.S., Canada, and
Advanced Economies
U.S.
Canada
Advanced
Economies
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
OECD November 2014 Forecast
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Economic Fundamentals
• The U.S. does not seem to have the ability to carry
out any kind of fiscal/growth policy.
•
Will a Republican Senate help?
• U.S. government budget balance is in relatively
good position and could support “investments.”
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
OECD November preliminary forecast: Government
Budget Balance.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
IMF’s Policy Recommendations for the U.S.
IMF, 2014, p. 48.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Infrastructure and Education
• Building and improving infrastructure is the current “hot”
policy recommendation in international circles.
• Following the IMF (2014):
• Infrastructure has the advantage of creating jobs in the
early construction phase, which is appealing to politicians.
• Budget situation is in improved situation.
• Infrastructure has the advantage of raising productivity and
living standards in the future.
• Educational attainment is the most robust predictor of
economic growth. Examples from the U.S.
• U.S. educational attainment is lagging most of the
developed world for younger adults (OECD, 2011).
IMF World Economic
Outlook, October 2014
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Ohio and Midwest performance
• Great Recession and subsequent
recovery/expansion has been challenging.
• Compare OH to the U.S.
•
Coming out of the recession, Ohio outperformed the U.S.
but beginning in 2012, the historic pattern of Ohio
underperforming the US by about 0.5 to 1 percentage
points a year remerged.
• A key feature of weak Midwest economic
performance is its manufacturing intensity, though
increasingly that is becoming more of an excuse.
•
In June 2014, Ohio manufacturing employment was 51%
below 1979 levels and 34% below June 2000.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Comparing Ohio to the Midwest
• For a better comparison to similar economies
and histories.
• Wisconsin performs at the U.S. average
followed by Indiana.
• Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois greatly lag the
nation and are about equal.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Brief Discussion of the 3 C’s
• The general story is that the most prosperous
is in order of Columbus, Cincinnati, and
Cleveland.
• In the last decade, Columbus has widened
its advantage.
• Columbus looks ok even when compared to
peer cities with less manufacturing and more
services.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
What Ohio can do?
•
•
First, it takes a long time to turn around a state’s fortunes
and sometimes it is just blind luck.
Ohio has primarily used tax policy to improve its
performance.
•
•
•
•
Generally, hard to estimate tax policy effects: reverse causation,
sort out the effects of expenditures, etc.
When you do this, you get small to modest effects.
Likely because virtually all states have used tax policy since the
1970s and differences across states are now minimal.
I think the best thing that the Kasich administration has
done (besides what appears to be a capable staff) is their
budgets are credible and would support current levels of
expenditures. Reduces uncertainty for planning.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
• I think more creativity in terms of education and
human capital development for the workforce is
one area that warrants more attention.
• Attention to crumbling infrastructure would also lift
short-term employment but most important longterm productivity and quality of life.
• Also, reform the tax code policy so as to not put
small businesses at a disadvantage.
•
Small and new business start-ups generate a
disproportionate share of employment growth.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Conclusions
• 2015 looks to be a reasonably good year.
• The U.S. and Ohio will continue to grow at
reasonable rates in the post-2000 world.
• More innovation in policy is needed to shake
both from the current path of relatively slow
growth being the new normal.
Department of Agricultural, Environmental,
and Development Economics (AEDE)
Mark Partridge
Swank Chair in Rural-Urban Policy
AEDE, The Ohio State University
Google “Partridge Swank” and you will get my website
(614) 688-4907
[email protected]
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