SUPA FS CHEM 113 J. Pawlowski, Adjunct Professor FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY Forensic anthropologists study and examine human skeletal remains. RECOVERY For historical significance To identify an individual or groups of individuals New technologies Ground Penetrating Radar GPR Show patterns of density Scientific knowledge to identify Keep bones intact as found No disruption of how bones are lain in ground NOT good for urban environments Proton Magnetometer Shows variations in bone emissions of electromagnetic energy Technical knowledge of energies needed; very specific Must know differences in soil to begin recovery Articulation of bones may indicate decomposition IN fires, bones fragment with heat In specific designs can look like cinders Knowledge of anthropologist needed! Is it human? Human bone is layered, (growth patterns) circumferential Microscopic examination reveals; Osteomes are circular random patterns Random patterns seen in primates DNA analysis or Electon Microscopy When fragments too small to reveal patterns Oddities and similarities; Bear hand Sea turtle femur Microcephaly Organic Analysis Histological evidence along with structural differences and spectral specificity are tied to particular elements and proportion of elements in bone. Standard samples of bone and teeth established! Age of death Arthritic vertebrae; spiny joint/terminal regions- old Young no spines Teeth: crown and root development for adults Are primary teeth present? 1st molar; 6 yrs 2nd molar 12 yrs Bone loss in mature adults Teeth and Jaws Adult: Secondary teeth erupted Third molars erupted or fully formed in jaw Teen or child may have primary teeth remaining or secondary teeth with a sprinkling of primary teeth. Teeth may reveal health; limits of lifestyle Translucence of root increases with age VERY interesting…. Bones found in remains from birthdate 1950 and earlier have less Carbon 14 in bone than remains from birthdate post-1950 Nuclear age even varies content and quality of remains! Data correlated on the Bomb Curve Intersect! To determine manner of death To determine legal responsibility Bones experience slow decay and decomposition of the skeletal components & yield evidence after centuries of exposure to the elements. Bones reveal origin, sex, age, race and skeletal scarring and injury. Tuberculosis history… Fungal disease shows alteration on skeletal tissue Cavitation- bone loss/wearing Metal plate tracing! Implanted metal plates are imprinted with company insignia and can identify individual! Facial reconstruction all computerized now; excellent for exclusion Ante or Post Mortem ? Or peri mortem? Healings of bone continues… ante Animal chewing marks- rounded if animal Sharp if weapon/knife or saw Case: State of FL vs. Baglioni 1978- Disney World abduction; psychic aided in investigation; body found; corrugated pubic symphysis; gun shot wound Why need for FA? •L O N G B U R I E D O R N O T •F I R E •E X P L O S I O N •C R A S H E S / A C C I D E N T S •A N C I E N T O R H I S T O R I C A L •M U L T I P L E B O D I E S / M A S S GRAVE •W A R V I C T I M S The Big 4 Forensic anthropologists attempt to answer the questions; 1. What sex? 2. What race? (Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid are the terms used for racial features) 3. Age 4. Stature No skin please… Flesh impedes the anthropological study Flesh bloats, discolors, and distorts original human features Bone reveals more information to identify remains than decayed flesh Flesh may contain DNA useful for i.d. Skull bones Each and every skull bone is vital to determine the big 4 and other characteristics of an individual. Human skull sex differences Female skull smaller than male Gracile; smooth and streamlined Brow ridges smooth, not pronounced Orbit sockets; upper feature sharp, steep edges Female mouth narrower than male and chin pointed Skull, cont’d Male skull has heavier, thicker brow ridges Less fine, not as steep, orbit sockets Orbit sockets tend to be squarer than female Less pointed chin; square jaw phenomenon Occipital protruberance in male; absent in female skull (occipital bone of skull in back of skull) Skull Age Child skull small; even teenage years Size dependent on age Lack of ossification of skull bones; young, non- mature Sutures on skull indicative of age Non fused; open sutures Adult skull has fused sutures, partially or entirely Race and Skulls Negroid vs. Caucasian Skull Negroid: Prognasthasism; jutting of maxilla and mandible Test with pencil from nose to chin If pencil touches teeth but not chin Bone is denser; sheen and ivory color Nasal openings broader than Caucasoid skull WHY? Race and Skulls Mongoloids: shovel-shaped teeth Concave like incisors/upper Squared eye sockets Zygomatic arches are longer May be shorter distance to orbital sockets Greater width between eyes from other 2 races Race and Skulls Caucasoid Skull is orthognathic Less jaw jut forward Pencil test would touch nose to chin/jaws Narrower nasal openings, why? Less dense bones, color varies Long Bones And sex…. Hip (ilium and ischium prior to puberty) Inominate bone after puberty Femur (upper leg) Humerus (upper arm) Hips Pre puberty: Ischium, Ilium and pubis Post puberty: inonimate bone of hip: flared ears of elephant? Female: distinct changes with age/stages of development in hip bones. Male: hip bones do not vary/change in life stages Hip differences of sexes Female hip changes Mature hip bone broadens Pubic bone gets longer All to accommodate childbirth Pubis symphysis changes through life stages. Spongy, more brittle after 40 yrs or so. Corrugated- young ; smooth- mature Male pelvis narrow; pelvis to femur straight Differences in the way we walk? The hip swing of females so enjoyed by males! Long bones How femur and humerus articulate with joint bones determines right or left bone NEED TO KNOW Know major bones of limbs; arms legs, hips, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum Miscellaneous Long bones reveal much about stature Remember Bertillon? Anthropometry? Height varies but proportions do not Extremities often missing in nature, why? Cases and readings with FA The Sea Will Tell, by Vincent Bugliosi Buck Dwayne Walker convicted of double murder Dr. Bill Bass, Anthropologist, U of Tennessee wrote Death’s Acre,Runs the Anthropological Institute (body farm) Bones, by Douglas Ublecker Patricia Cornwall, Body Farm For you to do… Research what Mildred Trotter and Goldine Gleser studied. What contribution did they make to forensic anthropology? What you will do…. Find three comprehensive FA websites. Case study on a case involving FA! The Body Farm Dr. Bill Bass, U of Tennessee, Anthropology Dept.