CANOLA PRODUCTION IN NYERI, KENYA Paige Cross Canola -- Brassica napus Edible rapeseed developed in Canada in 1970s Two main varieties: Argentine (napus) and Polish (rapa) Low saturated fat 40% oil High meal protein Cooking oils, pressed cakes for animal feed, & biodiesel Cultivation Brassica napus Higher yield potential Taller Higher oil content 95 days to reach maturity Agroclimatic Needs Best suited to clay-loam soils Not very drought tolerant High heat can reduce yields Doesn’t tolerate standing water pH of 5.8-7.5 Elevation of 1800 and 2700m Nyeri is 1750m Cultivation Rotation Best results if following cereal grain or fallow in rotation 2 years between plantings In Kenya can be grown in relay/intercrops/cover crops, rotational crops, trap crops and for fodder. In Nyeri, intercropped with wheat and castor Possible rotation crops – flax, soybean, and lentil Successive plantings increase disease risk Susceptible to herbicide residues In Kenya can be grown in relay/intercrops/cover crops, rotational crops, trap crops and for fodder. Planting Seedbed free of weeds, heavy crop residues, large clods Cool season annual Plant prior to short rains? Moist, firm seed bed Seed depth of 3/8-1/2 in (no more than 1 in) 6-7 inch rows 5 – 8 lbs of seed per acre Strait combined using adjusted wheat combines Cultivation Nutrients & Protection Nitrogen & Sulfer are key nutrients Weed control program should include cultural, mechanical and chemical methods Sclerotinia white mold, club root, blackleg, and stem rot Price and Input Needs Biodiversity & Environmental Impacts (both of canola and of nontarget species) Herbicides can be used to control weeds, helps reduce tillage, prevents soil erosion and preserves soil moisture for plant production. Harvest when 1/3 are brown Swathing to prevent shatter losses Pods mature from bottom of plant up Once at full sides pods will dry o light brown in 3-4 weeks Herbicide Resistant (GMO) Canola 95 days to maturity Indeterminate Trifluralin and Sonalan Herbicides Diseases Apply in band at least 2in. from seeds Harvesting 10-12 in above soil protects from rain loss CAN ALSO BE CUT AND HARVESTED DIRECTLY In Nyeri District, 1 acre can yield up to 1000 kg Can be reduced by up to half if rainfall is low Marketing Storage Issues Must be stored tightly Can sweat for 6 weeks after harvest Cooking oils are popular in Kenya 110* F Only producing 1/3 of demand Second highest valued import after petrolium Home/Community Production Heating and spoilage Can also dry naturally in air or artificially Edible Oil Production Approtech Oil Press 1 ton of canola yields 250 – 300 liters of oil Can press 150kgs/hr ($3700) Manual can yield 20L a day (300) Sell of Canola Seed to processors Aberdare Oil Millers in Nyeri is one local miller of edible oils and fats Marketing Press Cakes High Protein Animal Feed 52% protein Byproduct of oil production Works well when complemented with soy meal cakes More complete Amino Acid Profile Biofuel Community Energy Independence Biodiesel to fuel local Sell to local producers/NGOs 1 acre producing 1000kg can earn 15,000 KsH annually Sell through farmers group for 18 KSh/kg Help Self Help Center Nyeri, Kieni East Division Eco-Energy Programme Offers Technical Advice Limitations & Unanswered Questions Is Canola agroclimatically suited for production in Nyeri? Would a different oil seed plant perform better? Would canola production at the CYEC make sense due to the technological needs and scale required? There is little available technical information on canola production in east Africa. Most information here is adapted from technical guides for Nebraska and south Texas. Contact Help Self Help Center for access to some of their resources?