Unit 7: Temperatures of the Lower
Average January surface temperatures.
• Discuss the measurement and characteristics of temperature and heat
• Explain the adiabatic process whereby vertically moving air warms and cools
• Discuss the global distribution of temperatures and their variation in time and space
Temperature, Temperature Scales
• What is temperature?
• Scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin
The Vertical Distribution of Temperature
• Environmental Lapse Rate
• Adiabatic Lapse Rates
-Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)
- Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR)
-inversions (ground, subsidence)
• Stability and Air Pollution
James Glaisher and his assistant, Coxwell, during a balloon flight on September 5, 1862.
Concept of Stability
Environmental lapse rate conditions
Source: h ttps://www.meted.ucar.edu/sign_in.php?go_back_to=http%253A%252F%252Fwww.meted.ucar.edu%252Fmesoprim%252Fbandedprecip%25
In an unstable atmosphere numerous thunderstorms billow up as viewed over southern Florida looking south.
Downtown Los Angeles is a leading city of air pollution due to poor vertical and horizontal mixing. Throughout the summer, there is a restrictive temperature inversion over the region. Adopting the strictest air pollution controls in the world, the air quality has improved remarkably.
Fig. 8.7 3 rd ed.
Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
• Temporal cycles
• Heating of land vs. water
-continental effect, continentality
• Global temperature variations
-isotherms and temperature gradients
The annual range in sea surface temperature (A) and the lag between maximum solar heating and the date of maximum temperature (B).
Fig 8.9-annual temperature regimes for inland vs coast
Annual Temperature Regime in Siberia
Mean sea-level air temperatures, in Fahrenheit for January
Mean sea-level air temperatures, in Fahrenheit for July
• Wind chill
– Correlates cold and wind speed
• Heat index
– Correlates heat and humidity