Nuclear Security Summit 2014

Nuclear Security
Summit 2014
Chairs: Hank Chau, Evonne Pei,
Jonathan Wu
Measures to Ensure the Peaceful
Use of Nuclear Resources
Jonathan Wu
Current Events
S African nations begin developing nuclear power
S Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa (expanding)
S Need cheap source of energy for power
S Use low enriched uranium not for weapon use
S Japan allows some displaced Fukushima residents to return
S 3 years after nuclear accident
S Some nuclear power companies want start up again
Current Events
S China develops thorium-based nuclear power
S A safer, more environmental alternative to uranium
S First power plant to be built by 2015
S Less able to be enriched to weapon grade
S Recent research breakthrough in Nuclear Fusion research
S A more reliable form of peaceful nuclear energy
S Replaces nuclear fission to be more environmental
Positions of Key Players and
Possible Blocs
S European Union
S The EU support the peaceful uses of nuclear technology under
the NPT and support the safeguarding of nuclear resources for
non-violent uses
S P5 Nations (US, UK, France, Russia, China)
S The P5 nations are all allowed to possess weapon grade forms
of nuclear resources, however, they are all trying to increase
their non-violent forms of nuclear energy
Positions of Key Players and
Possible Blocs
S Many LEDC nations do not have the resources needed for nuclear
proliferation, however, wish to use nuclear resources as a way to
generate power and help encourage development
S Middle Eastern Nations
S A few nations have concerns with nuclear security and a few do
not ratify the NPT and are thus proliferating nuclear resources for
aggressive uses. However, many other Middle Eastern states are
interested in the creation of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone and
developing with the aid of nuclear resources
S Japan
S Japan does not support the use of nuclear technology for any
purpose whether peaceful or violent, as it has experienced great
disasters from both nuclear bombings and the previous nuclear
power plant leakage at Fukushima.
The question of effective actions
towards the total elimination of
nuclear weapons.
Evonne Pei
Recent Events
The total global nuclear stockpile is approximately 17,300
the United States, Russia, Britain, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North
January- India and Japan reaffirmed their shared commitment to the total
elimination of nuclear weapons.
March- Cuba; called for total elimination of nuclear weapons
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States ( CELAC) declared the region
a zone of peace
2015 Deep Cuts:
The U.S. and Russia negotiate a bilateral accord to cut their arsenals 80% to 1,000
total warheads each (to be implemented by 2018).
All other nuclear weapons countries agree to freeze the total number of warheads in
their arsenals and commit to participate in multilateral negotiations for proportionate
reductions of stockpiles.
United States
S approximately 7,700 nuclear weapons (more than enough
explosive power to destroy the world)
S US President Barack Obama's June Berlin speech, in which
he declared, ‘so long as nuclear weapons exist, we are not
truly safe
S 250 nuclear weapons, including 75 intercontinental ballistic
missiles (ICBMs)
S flight-tested a hypersonic nuclear missile delivery vehicle
capable of penetrating any existing defense system.
S Iran urges elimination of “inhuman” nuclear weapons
ahead of talks on its nuclear program
S urges all countries to sign the nuclear test ban treaty
S encourages the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free
S calls on North Korea to abandon all nuclear weapons and
expresses concern at its uranium enrichment and light water
reactor construction
S The Iranian envoy further called for global disarmament and
stressed that, “The total elimination of these inhuman
weapons is the only absolute guarantee against their threat or
S After ratifying the New START Treaty, the United States
and Russia agree to reduce to 1,000 total warheads each by
S Ukraine Crisis
S Annexation of Crimea
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
S The CTBT bans nuclear explosions by everyone,
everywhere: on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere,
underwater and underground.
S March: Niue ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
S CTBT has been signed by 183 countries (162 have also
ratified); however, it can only be enforced after it has been
ratified by the 8 remaining nuclear capable countries: China,
the DPRK, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and the
United States.
Second Conference on the Humanitarian
Impact of Nuclear Weapons
S Conclusion: “no State or international organization
has the capacity to address or provide the short and
long term humanitarian assistance and protection
needed in case of a nuclear weapon explosion.”
S Northeast Asia and Middle East: declare themselves “nuclear
weapon non-use zones,”
Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones
S Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Africa in 2009
S Many non-nuclear weapon states, including the majority of African
states, will participate in the debates in Mexico.
S the African continent could play an important role in negotiating a
ban on nuclear weapons
Important they can help convince states (that
possess nuclear weapons) to engage from a
humanitarian approach.
S April 11-12, the Nuclear Non-proliferation and
Disarmament Initiative will convene in Hiroshima, attended
by the foreign ministers of 12 states.
The Question of Preventing Nonstate Actors from attaining nuclear
Hank Chau
NPT: Not enough?
S “Unless the world community acts decisively and with great
urgency, it is more likely than not that a weapons of mass
destruction will be used in a terrorist attack somewhere in
the world by the end of 2013.” – Commission on Weapons
of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism of the US
Congress in a report in 2008.
S Although it is already now 2014, and the chance of nuclear
weapons falling into the hands of non-state actors (ex:
terrorists) is not very high, this issue still poses a massive
threat to international security, as the results would be
devastating to every nation state.
Nuclear Security Summit 2014
S The Nuclear Security Summit 2014 was held in Hague,
Netherlands on March 24 and 25, with 53 state leaders and
3 observers (UN, EU, IAEA) attending to discuss the
existing and future threats of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Security Summit 2014
S The three listed goals for NSS 2014 were:
S 1. Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear materials
S 2. Improving security on nuclear sources and its usage
S 3. Enhancing international cooperation in non-proliferation
United States
S U.S President Obama placed the issue of non-state actors
obtaining nuclear weapons on a global agenda in 2009.
S In NSS 2014, Obama expressed (once again) his concern on
terrorists obtaining nuclear weapons.
S The International Atomic Energy Agency is an IGO that
dedicates to the scientific research and safety usage of
nuclear energy. Currently, it works with numerous member
states to develop nuclear safety programs while
implementing nuclear disarmament. In 2013, 146 incidents
involving nuclear or radioactive material were reported to
the IAEA, proving the need for more attention on nuclear
Possible Blocs or Alliances
S International cooperation is required to truly and effectively
prevent non-state actors from obtaining nuclear weapons.
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