The Expansion of Trade

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The Expansion
of Trade
Chapter Two
Worldview Inquiry
 What
impact might increased trade and
business have on a society’s worldview?
In this chapter:
 we
will explore how trade and business
expanded in Renaissance Europe;
 how trade with the East affected
European society; and,
 how increased trade influenced the
growth and development of powerful
city-states in Italy.
Section One:
The Rise of International Trade
 Focus

Question:
What factors contributed to the rise of
trade between Western Europe and the
East at the beginning of the Renaissance?
The Rise of International Trade



The “Silk Road” – the routes that connected
the Mediterranean in the West to the
Pacific Ocean in the East.
Intercultural contact along this trade route
led to the exchange of ideas and
knowledge.
Trade goods were also, of course, passed
along these routes.
Whole-Class Discussion
Think It Through
Page 40
Italy’s location has been described as
“Europe’s gateway to the East.” Is this an
appropriate metaphor? Explain. What other
metaphors would you use to describe Italy’s
location in terms of trade?
The Rise of International Trade
 The

Crusades and Trade
“The Crusades” – a series of religious wars
between Christians and Muslims.
Think-Pair-Share
Zoom In: The Crusades
Page 41
Read The Article
2. Think About the Questions
Pair Up With a Classmate and Discuss the
Questions and Your Answers
4. Be Prepared to
Share Your Thoughts with the Class
1.
3.
The Rise of International Trade
 The

Crusades and Trade
There were two important results of the
Crusades for Europeans:
 contact
 trade.
with Muslim civilizations; and,
The Rise of International Trade
 The



Crusades and Trade Cont’d…
During this time, the Muslim world was more
advanced than Europe.
Europeans were exposed to new goods (oil,
spices, fruits…) as well as new ideas (about
medicine, astronomy, mathematics…)
because of their travels and contact with
the East.
Increased trade between the two regions
resulted from the European’s desire for
more goods and knowledge.
The Rise of International Trade
 The

Crusades and Trade Cont’d…
Goods from the East
 Many
goods that came from the East were
luxury goods (precious jewels, rugs, fabrics like
silk, satin…) that were unavailable in Europe
at the time.
 Spices, however, were the most valuable and
sought after trade good.
The Rise of International Trade
 Moving

Goods and Resources
Long ago, goods were moved, often at
enormous expense, to market towns on
ships along the coast, on boats along the
rivers, or overland by horse, mule or ox.
Whole-Class Discussion
Fast Forward: Canada’s International Trade
Page 46
Whole-Class Discussion
Think It Through
Page 46
Earlier you considered how important
access to trade routes was to the Italian
city-states. How important do you think
access to trade routes is to Canada today:
more important, just as important, or not
important. Explain.
Practice
Over to You
Page 46
#1a & #1b
Section Two:
The Italian City-States
 Focus

Question:
How did increased trade lead to the
emergence of powerful city-states in Italy?
The Italian City-States



“city-states” – a city and the rural area
around it that is politically independent of
other areas.
“hinterland” – the rural area in a city-state.
During the Renaissance, Italy was a
collection of city-states.
Think-Pair-Share
Exploring Sources:
Florence, A Prosperous City-Sate
Page 47
1.
3.
Read The Article and Examine Figure 2-11
2. Think About the Questions
Pair Up With a Classmate and Discuss the
Questions and Your Answers
4. Be Prepared to
Share Your Thoughts with the Class
The Italian City-States

The Success of the City-States
 Dozens
of city-states in the northern half of
Italy became the wealthiest cities in Europe
because of their geography, climate,
leadership, and social organization.
The Italian City-States

The Success of the City-States Cont’d
 Geography

Italy was closest to the port cities where spices
and other luxury goods were available for trade.
This made transporting these goods by sea easier
and cheaper for traders in Italy.
The Italian City-States

The Success of the City-States Cont’d
 Climate

Italy’s mild climate meant that trade and travel
were not interrupted by winter weather. It also
allowed for a long growing season for important
trade items such as olives (for oil) and grapes (for
wine).
The Italian City-States

The Success of the City-States Cont’d
 Leadership



“monarchy” – ruled by a king or queen – how
most European countries were governed during
the Renaissance.
Italy was never governed by a monarchy.
Instead, each city-state in Northern Italy had its
own government and army with control over its
own affairs.
Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa – became the
wealthiest trading, banking, and business centres
in Europe.
The Italian City-States

The Success of the City-States Cont’d
 Social

Organization
Feudalism did not have near as much control
over Italy as it did in other areas of Europe. Many
nobles lived in towns where they became
involved in business and politics.
The Italian City-States
 Competition



for Trade
There was rivalry between Italy’s city-states
as they all wanted to expand their trade
and business.
The city of Venice became a great trading
centre as a result of its dealings with the
East and became the largest shipbuilding
centre in Europe.
Genoa, the other great maritime power in
Italy, was on equal terms with Venice until
its fleet was destroyed in 1380.
Think-Pair-Share
Exploring Sources: Venice’s Success
Page 49
Read The Diary Passage
2. Think About the Questions
Pair Up With a Classmate and Discuss the
Questions and Your Answers
4. Be Prepared to
Share Your Thoughts with the Class
1.
3.
The Italian City-States
 Commerce


in the City-States
Merchants made money by buying goods
in one place and selling them for a higher
price in another place.
They bought finished goods, as well as
resources (ie. raw wool) that needed to be
manufactured into goods (cloth).
The Italian City-States
 Commerce

in the City-States Cont’d
Making Money with Money
 Bankers
and merchants brought wealth to
their cities.
 Florentine bankers established banking houses
across Europe and Florence’s economy
became so powerful that its golden “florin”
became the most important currency in
Europe during the Renaissance.
 “Usury” – the practice of charging interest
when loaning money
The Italian City-States
 Commerce

in the City-States Cont’d
Making Money with Money
 The
economy in Italy’s city-states continued
to evolve which led to support for strong
leaders who promised stability.
 Italian values and ideas spread across Europe
as wealthy Europeans, artists and scholars
visited Italy and were impressed by the
Italians beauty and sophistication.
Whole-Class Discussion
Voices: Doing Business
Page 51
Think-Pair-Share
Exploring Sources: The Nuu-Chah-Nulth
Page 53
Read The Description
2. Think About the Questions
Pair Up With a Classmate and Discuss the
Questions and Your Answers
4. Be Prepared to
Share Your Thoughts with the Class
1.
3.
Think-Pair-Share
Zoom In: The Medici Family
Page 54
Read The Article
2. Think About the Questions
Pair Up With a Classmate and Discuss the
Questions and Your Answers
4. Be Prepared to
Share Your Thoughts with the Class
1.
3.
Whole-Class Discussion
Fast Forward: Wealth and Responsibility
Page 55
The Italian City-States
 Economics



and Citizenship
The economy went into a depression
following the Black Death.
Merchants and bankers continued to grow
wealthier through trade and commerce.
Wealthy people spent their money on the
arts and the beautification of their cities –
this encouraged loyalty and pride in the
Italian public.
Practice
Over to You
Page 56
#5
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