Review Questions Pre-modern period; Renaissance 1. All of the following are true of the Black Death EXCEPT A. It is believed to have been carried to Europe by seaborne rats B. It caused discoloration in its victims. C. It was highly contagious. D. It could be cured by flagellation E. It probably came to Europe from the Black Sea area 2. Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague of the 14th century? A. Noble landholders B. Urban elites C. Peasants D. Clergy E. artisans 3. The Statute of Laborers was typical of noble response to post plague peasant demands in that it A. Guaranteed a minimum wage for artisans. B. Barred laborers from moving from one city to another. C. Governed working conditions in early factories. D. Barred laborers from moving from one profession to another. E. Limited wages to pre-plague levels 4. Which papal doctrine contributed to the transformation of the papacy into a great secular power? A. Papal primacy B. Plenitude of power C. Petrine Doctrine D. Papal infallibility E. Donation of Constantine. 5. In his Defender of the Peace, Masilius of Padua stressed the A. Independence of the papacy. B. Independence and autonomy of secular governments. C. Role of the church in preventing war. D. Need for a unified Christendom. E. Valor and righteousness of Pope John XXII. 6. English strength in the Hundred Years’ War was due in part to its A. Superior naval warfare. B. Use of the longbow. C. Ability to fight primarily on its own lands. D. Secret allies among the French privileged classes. E. Superior armor 7. The church during the Late Middle Ages is best characterized as A. Growing increasingly focused on secular matters. B. Growing increasingly focused on spiritual matters. C. Enjoying harmonious relationships with European monarch. D. Enjoying popular support E. Enjoying an improved relationship with local diocese 8. Unam Sanctum expressed which of the following views? A. Temporal power was subject to the spiritual power of the church. B. The power of the church was subject to the power of the monarch. C. Only one pope could serve as the head of the church. D. The Conciliar Movement was unjust. E. Joan of Arc was a heretic. 9. For the most part, Italian city-states during the Renaissance A. Were governed by democratically elected bodies. B. Were dominated by despotic rule. C. Worked in cooperation with neighboring city-states. D. Were characterized by extreme poverty. E. Were characterized by central organization 10. The cultural center of the Italian Renaissance was A. Naples B. Milan C. Venice D. Rome E. Florence 11. Which of the following figures in Italian history is most responsible for the French invasion of Italy in 1495? A. Girolamo Savonarola. B. Cosimo de Medici C. Ludovico il Moro D. Cesare Borgia E. Lucrezia Borgia 12. Which of the following books examines Renaissance court life and conduct? A. Castiglion’s Courtier B. Machiavelli’s Prince C. Boccaccio’s Decameron D. Eramus Adages E. More’s Utopia 13. Which of the following conditions was most responsible for the extraordinary cultural developments that occurred in Italy during the Renaissance? A. A lack of European conflicts. B. A unified country C. A lack of conflicts among the Italian city-states D. An abundance of wealth E. Politically conservative, despotic rulers 14. Which of the following developments stimulated the spread of humanism in Northern Europe? A. The publication of Erasmus’ Adages B. The creation of the Vulgate C. Artistic patronage of Renaissance Italy D. The collapse of humanism in Italy E. The French invasion of Italy 15. Humanists believed that education should A. promote individual virtue, B. promote public virtue C. promote individual virtue and public service D. be available to both men and women. E. be available to people of all social classes. 16. Italy’s decline at the end of the fifteenth century was precipitated by the A. Spanish invasion of Italy B. Collapse of the Ottoman Empire C. Revival of the papacy D. Alliance between the papacy and the Habsburgs E. French invasion of Italy. 17. The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile allowed the two rulers to do all of the following EXCEPT A. Subdue unruly elements of their realms. B. Secure their borders against attacks. C. Secure a lasting peace with Muslim Spain D. Christianize the whole of Spain. E. Venture abroad militarily. 18. The attitude of Renaissance artists toward their medieval predecessors could best be described as A. equal to their respect for the ancient Greeks and Romans. B. Disdainful. C. Respectful for the efforts and advances they made. D. uninterested E. Unsure as to how to understand their work. 19. Machiavelli’s solution to Italy’s problems was A. A renewal of religious fervor. B. The unification of Italy. C. The establishment of dictatorships in each city-state. D. An alliance between Italy and Spain. E. The establishment of democracy in each city-state. 20. The significance if the sack of Rome by the troops of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, was A. It ended the influence of the papacy in the affairs of European nations. B. It was a key factor in the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation. C. It led to economic depression in most of the Italian peninsula. D. It is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance. E. It helped bring about the Counter Reformation.