Successes and Setbacks
By: Stephanie, Lauren, Nikole,
Yasaman, Doug, Ben
As the 1960s began, leaders for the civil
rights movement- both African American
and liberal whites-stepped up the tactics of
non-violent resistance throughout the south.
Although eventually many of these tactics
resulted in great gains for the movement,
they generally were met with violence,
people were attacked and killed, and only
the federal government was strong enough
to do something about it.
Students Stage Sit-ins
During the winter of 1959
and 1960, civil rights groups
held marches,
demonstrations, and boycotts
to end segregation in public
► In February of 1960, four
African American students
sat down at a segregated
lunch counter and refused to
leave until they were served.
► This event sparked many
other incidents of protests in
schools across the south
Kennedy and Civil Rights
► In
contrast to previous presidencies’ cautious stances
on the civil rights movement, President Kennedy had
promised vigorous support of the movement.
► However, Kennedy’s hesitance frustrated many white
liberals and also African Americans.
Kennedy and Civil Rights Contd.
Freedom Riders
► Freedom
Riders were activists
who rode buses into segregated
terminals throughout the south.
► In May of 1961, busloads of
Riders were attacked by mobs in
Anniston and Birmingham,
► Local police were unable or
unwilling to protect them from
the angry racists.
► As a result, Kennedy was forced
to use federal marshal law to
restore order.
Kennedy and Civil Rights Contd.
Violence in Birmingham
In April of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. led a
peaceful demonstration in Birmingham, Alabama.
► On the orders of the police commissioner, the police
used fire hoses, clubs, and snarling dogs on the
demonstrators including women and children.
► Kennedy sent 3,000 troops to restore peace in the
Trouble in Southern Universities
In September of 1962, an African
American air force veteran, James
Meredith, sought entry into the
University of Mississippi.
► The Governor of Mississippi, did
not allow him to attend the
► Kennedy sent federal marshals
and the national guard, who
enabled James’ entrance into the
The March on Washington
In August 1963, for the 100th anniversary of the
Emancipation Proclamation, African American leaders
planned to hold the largest civil rights demonstration in
the nation’s history. This “March on Washington for Jobs
and Freedom” would press for the passage of Kennedy’s
proposed civil rights bill, which was being debated in
The March on Washington
King’s Dream of Freedom
► More
than 200,000
demonstrators, both African
American and white, united in
the nation’s capital
► It is here that Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr., delivered his famous “I
have a dream” speech.
► The leaders of the march then
left for a meeting with President
Kennedy at the White House.
The March on Washington
A New Civil Rights Act
► The
March on Washington was a historic event for
the civil rights movement.
► It confirmed for Congress the widespread support
for a civil rights bill.
► After President Kennedy’s assassination on
November 22, 1963, President Johnson was
determined to continue Kennedy’s civil rights
► Even though Johnson himself was from the South,
he had broken with the segregationists early in his
► On July 2, President Johnson signed into law the
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
► All
citizens should have equal access to public facilities
as parks and libraries and to such private businesses
serving the public as restaurants and theatres.
► It forbade discrimination in education and
strengthened the right to vote.
► It outlawed job discrimination because of race, sex,
religion, or national origin
Voting Rights Act of 1965
► Helped
pave the way for more African
Americans to vote.
► Helped other minorities such as
Puerto Ricans and Mexicans to vote even if
they did not read English.
The End
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