Ch. 10 - Critical and Evaluative Reading Made Easy

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ADVANCING
VOCABULARY SKILLS
Fourth Edition
Sherrie L. Nist
© 2010 Townsend Press
Unit Two: Chapter 10
• autonomy
• recourse
• bureaucratic
• reiterate
• mandate
• tantamount
• ostracize
• tenacious
• raucous
• utopia
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 autonomy
– noun
• In 1776, the American colonists, tired of being ruled by England,
fought for their autonomy.
• Children as young as age two begin to want some autonomy.
The term “terrible twos” reflects their struggle for independence.
Autonomy means
A. assistance.
B. freedom from control.
C. self-sacrifice.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 autonomy
– noun
• In 1776, the American colonists, tired of being ruled by England,
fought for their autonomy.
• Children as young as age two begin to want some autonomy.
The term “terrible twos” reflects their struggle for independence.
Autonomy means
A. assistance.
B. freedom from control.
C. self-sacrifice.
Since the colonists were tired of being ruled by England, they fought
for their freedom from British control. In the second item, the word
independence is a clue that autonomy means “freedom from control.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 bureaucratic
– adjective
• Bureaucratic organizations can become so bogged down in
regulations that almost no work gets done.
• “This family is more bureaucratic than the federal government!”
Mac complained to his parents. “You have rules for everything.”
Bureaucratic means
A. over-regulated.
B. old-fashioned.
C. independent.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 bureaucratic
– adjective
• Bureaucratic organizations can become so bogged down in
regulations that almost no work gets done.
• “This family is more bureaucratic than the federal government!”
Mac complained to his parents. “You have rules for everything.”
Bureaucratic means
A. over-regulated.
B. old-fashioned.
C. independent.
The words bogged down in regulations suggest that bureaucratic
means “over-regulated.” Similarly, in the second item, the words
rules for everything suggest the meaning “over-regulated.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 mandate
– noun
• All the union members voted for the strike, giving their leaders a
clear mandate.
• The senator received so many letters supporting his position on
gun control that he felt he had the mandate of the people.
Mandate means
A. a criticism.
B. a delay.
C. official permission.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 mandate
– noun
• All the union members voted for the strike, giving their leaders a
clear mandate.
• The senator received so many letters supporting his position on
gun control that he felt he had the mandate of the people.
Mandate means
A. a criticism.
B. a delay.
C. official permission.
The vote by the union members would give the leaders official
permission to call a strike. Similarly, many letters of support for the
position would give the senator the official permission of the people.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 ostracize
– verb
• Children who look or act “different” are often ostracized by their
classmates. No one will play with them or even talk to them.
• When Selena married a man twenty years younger than herself,
she was ostracized by the entire family. No one would have
anything to do with her.
Ostracize means
A. to reject.
B. to feel sorry for.
C. to control.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 ostracize
– verb
• Children who look or act “different” are often ostracized by their
classmates. No one will play with them or even talk to them.
• When Selena married a man twenty years younger than herself,
she was ostracized by the entire family. No one would have
anything to do with her.
Ostracize means
A. to reject.
B. to feel sorry for.
C. to control.
If no one plays with the children or talks to them, they are being
rejected. And if no one in Selena’s family had anything to do with
her, her family was rejecting her.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 raucous
– adjective
• The audience at the rock concert was so raucous that we feared
the noise and commotion would lead to violence.
• At the horror movie, the audience’s behavior became raucous.
Everyone was shouting at the characters on the screen and
pretending to shriek with fright.
Raucous means
A. persistent.
B. disorderly.
C. angry.
Raucous soccer fans
Photo: zulfinho
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 raucous
– adjective
• The audience at the rock concert was so raucous that we feared
the noise and commotion would lead to violence.
• At the horror movie, the audience’s behavior became raucous.
Everyone was shouting at the characters on the screen and
pretending to shriek with fright.
Raucous means
A. persistent.
B. disorderly.
C. angry.
Raucous soccer fans
Photo: zulfinho
The words noise and commotion
suggest that raucous means
“disorderly.” In the second item, if the
audience is shouting and shrieking,
they are being disorderly.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 recourse
– noun
• “Unless you pay your bill,” the company threatened, “we’ll have
no recourse but to sue you.”
• “We’ll try treating you with medication.” the doctor explained.
“If that isn’t effective, the only recourse will be surgery.”
Recourse means
A. a choice.
B. a problem.
C. a question.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 recourse
– noun
• “Unless you pay your bill,” the company threatened, “we’ll have
no recourse but to sue you.”
• “We’ll try treating you with medication.” the doctor explained.
“If that isn’t effective, the only recourse will be surgery.”
Recourse means
A. a choice.
B. a problem.
C. a question.
If the bill is not paid, the company has no choice but to sue. And if
medication does not solve the problem, the only choice left is surgery.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 reiterate
– verb
• The agency director stated, “I have said this before, but let me
reiterate: Unless we receive the funds to hire more staff, the
children of this city will continue to suffer.”
• I hate it when a speaker reiterates the same point over and over,
as if the listeners weren’t paying attention or were just too stupid
to understand.
Reiterate means
A. to repeat.
B. to forget.
C. to exclude.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 reiterate
– verb
• The agency director stated, “I have said this before, but let me
reiterate: Unless we receive the funds to hire more staff, the
children of this city will continue to suffer.”
• I hate it when a speaker reiterates the same point over and over,
as if the listeners weren’t paying attention or were just too stupid
to understand.
Reiterate means
A. to repeat.
B. to forget.
C. to exclude.
Since the agency director has “said this before,” he is repeating
his statement. In the second item, the words the same point over
and over suggest that reiterate means “to repeat.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 tantamount
– adjective
• Charging three dollars for a cup of coffee is tantamount to
robbery.
• My mother’s refusal to let me have the car was tantamount to
forbidding me to go to the beach.
Tantamount means
A. the result of.
B. just like.
C. independent of.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 tantamount
– adjective
• Charging three dollars for a cup of coffee is tantamount to
robbery.
• My mother’s refusal to let me have the car was tantamount to
forbidding me to go to the beach.
Tantamount means
A. the result of.
B. just like.
C. independent of.
Charging three dollars for a cup of coffee is just like robbery. And the
mother’s refusal is the same as (just like) forbidding the speaker to
go to the beach.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 tenacious
– adjective
• The cat’s grip on the tree limb was tenacious, but we weren’t
sure how long she could keep hanging on so firmly.
• My aunt’s tenacious determination to recover may have pulled
her through her illness.
Tenacious means
A. grasping strongly.
B. weak and ineffective.
C. slowly shrinking.
“Of course I remember you. You’re the
salesman with the tenacious handshake.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 tenacious
– adjective
• The cat’s grip on the tree limb was tenacious, but we weren’t
sure how long she could keep hanging on so firmly.
• My aunt’s tenacious determination to recover may have pulled
her through her illness.
Tenacious means
A. grasping strongly.
B. weak and ineffective.
C. slowly shrinking.
“Of course I remember you. You’re the
salesman with the tenacious handshake.”
In the first item, the words hanging on so
firmly tell you that tenacious means
“grasping strongly.” In the second item,
since the aunt pulled through, she must
have been grasping strongly her
determination to recover.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 utopia
– noun
• In 1888, Edward Bellamy wrote about a utopia where everyone
would have a comfortable income, work only until the age of 45,
and then enjoy leisure.
• Everyone has a different idea of utopia. A situation that seems
perfect to me might make you miserable.
Utopia means
A. a city.
B. a self-government.
C. a paradise.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 utopia
– noun
• In 1888, Edward Bellamy wrote about a utopia where everyone
would have a comfortable income, work only until the age of 45,
and then enjoy leisure.
• Everyone has a different idea of utopia. A situation that seems
perfect to me might make you miserable.
Utopia means
A. a city.
B. a self-government.
C. a paradise.
A world in which everyone has a comfortable income and enjoys leisure
is a paradise. In the second item, the word perfect suggests that utopia
is a paradise.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
1. I’d love a job with a great deal of __________. I want to
set my own hours, work at home whenever I like, and
make many decisions on my own.
2. In high school, Felipe was _______(e)d because of his
political views, but in college he found many people who
shared his opinions.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
1. I’d love a job with a great deal of __________.
autonomy I want to
set my own hours, work at home whenever I like, and
make many decisions on my own.
The description is of a job with a great deal of independence.
2. In high school, Felipe was __________
ostracized because of his
political views, but in college he found many people who
shared his opinions.
The people in high school who didn’t like Felipe’s political views
would be likely to shun him.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
3. When you write a letter of complaint, begin by stating
what you want the company to do about the problem.
Then __________ this request at the end.
4. Our local supermarket is so expensive that shopping there
is __________ to throwing our money away.
5. The children on the school bus were so __________ that the
driver got a headache from all the noise.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
3. When you write a letter of complaint, begin by stating
what you want the company to do about the problem.
Then __________
reiterate this request at the end.
You should state what you want again at the end of the letter.
4. Our local supermarket is so expensive that shopping there
is __________
tantamount to throwing our money away.
Shopping at the very expensive supermarket is the same as throwing
money away.
5. The children on the school bus were so __________
raucous that the
driver got a headache from all the noise.
Since the driver got a headache from all the noise, the children
must have been noisy and disorderly.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
6. Helen’s smoking was a __________ habit; she wasn’t
able to give it up until she watched her brother die of
lung cancer.
7. Idealists have sometimes tried to establish ________s,
but these communities have always failed. I wonder if it
is possible to achieve perfection.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
6. Helen’s smoking was a __________
tenacious habit; she wasn’t
able to give it up until she watched her brother die of
lung cancer.
It was a persistent habit that only her brother’s death could break.
7. Idealists have sometimes tried to establish _________,
utopias
but these communities have always failed. I wonder if it
is possible to achieve perfection.
The word perfection suggests that these idealists have tried to
establish an ideal or perfect place.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
8. While most college instructors are flexible, some are very
__________, allowing no exceptions to the rules regardless
of the circumstances.
9. In a landslide election, the voters’ __________ is clear. If
the vote has been close, though, it’s difficult to tell what
“the people” really want.
10. In the past, workers often had no _________ when employers
discriminated against them. Today, however, they can seek
help from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. autonomy
B. bureaucratic C. mandate
D. ostracize
E. raucous
F. recourse
G. reiterate
I. tenacious
J. utopia
H. tantamount
8. While most college instructors are flexible, some are very
__________,
bureaucratic allowing no exceptions to the rules regardless
of the circumstances.
Instructors who allow no exceptions to the rules are over-regulated.
9. In a landslide election, the voters’ __________
mandate is clear. If
the vote has been close, though, it’s difficult to tell what
“the people” really want.
In a landslide election, the voters have shown their expressed wishes.
10. In the past, workers often had no _________
recourse when employers
discriminated against them. Today, however, they can seek
help from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Before the EEOC, workers had no option when faced with discrimination.
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