The Puritans: Purity and Problems Goals of Lessons • Increase student engagement, discussion, and retention through various methods: – Engaging readings and sources – Online writing and discussion prior to class – Interactive powerpoint presentation – student input, credit for insights, use of student work in presentation – In-class group discussions – In-class readings and comments – Continuity of themes and issues Student Outcomes • Make learning outcomes a natural part of everyday work: – Critical Thinking Skills • • • • Use and evaluation of historical documents Summary of argument Analysis of argument Comparison of multiple arguments or documents – Communication – oral, written, group, individual – Global Awareness • Atlantic economic system • Atlantic migration and immigration networks • Atlantic political and religious networks Student Outcomes (continued) Race, Gender, Ethnicity: • Issues of race and slavery • Role of Native Americans in American life Cultural Awareness: • Religious diversity and intolerance • Native American cultural, econ., enviro. practices Hypothetical Student Contributions • Insights from Online Group Discussion = Highlighted in Red • Filled in during class = Highlighted in Blue Readings and Assignments • Lesson #1: Puritan Religious and Social Values • Completed before class: – Document: John Cotton, “The Divine Right to Occupy the Land,” 1630 – Document: John Winthrop, “A Modell of Christian Charity,” 1630 – Document: John Cotton, “God Did Not Ordain Democracy Fit for Church or Commonwealth,” 1636 – Document: Massachusetts Proscribes Quakers, 1677 – Document: Roger Williams Responds to John Cotton, 1644 – Transcript (excerpts), Trial of Anne Hutchinson Group Journal Assignments • Assignment: Before 8pm the night before class, read the poem for your group. Then write at least 4 sentences summarizing the main idea of the poem and how you think the poem can help us understand Puritan life and beliefs. Do you see any conflict between Bradstreet’s views on life and those espoused in the other documents? Provide evidence from documents to support your case. Then respond critically to another group member’s comments in at least 2 sentences. • Group One: Anne Bradstreet, “Verses upon the Burning of Our House“ • Group Two: Bradstreet, “Before the Birth of One of Her Children“ • Group Three: Bradstreet, “To My Dear and Loving Husband” • Group Four: Bradstreet, “A Letter to Her Husband, Absent Upon Public Employment" Brainstorming George Henry Boughton, “The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church,” 1867 Thoughts on the Painting? • What message was the artist trying to convey about the Puritans? – Positive portrayal; tight-knit community; religious devotion; families; male leaders; religious leadership; belief despite harsh environment • Does the painting contain any indication of problems or conflicts in Puritan life? – Look unhappy; have to carry guns for protection on way to church; fear of attack?; bad relations with Indians Major Themes & Questions • • • • • • Who were the Puritans? What did they believe? Why did they come to North America? Differences from Chesapeake settlers? The Puritan Covenants – Inclusion and Exclusion Conflicts between purity and living in the “real world” – – – – Religious conflicts – inclusion and exclusion Land Hunger & Conflicts with Native Americans Economic issues and problems Conflicts with England Puritan Religious Beliefs Christianity in England Catholic Church Church of England (Henry VIII) Pilgrims (Separatists) Puritans (Non-separatists) Anglicans Goals of Purification • Puritans part of longer Protestant Reformation • Puritans wanted to apply John Calvin’s principles to purify Anglican Church – More Biblical, literal interpretation of Bible – Rejected hierarchy of Catholic Church – “popish” – no one should get between individual and God – Rejected rituals – Rejected trends in English society – crime, commerce, lack of tradition – They liked Anglican break with Catholic Church, but believed A.C. was corrupt – thought they could reform A.C. from within – Charles I & Anglicans persecuted Puritans for criticisms – pushed them to North America and Europe First Euro Settlers in MA Colony • Comparing Pilgrims and Puritans • Pilgrims (separatists) first settlers in 1620, but few in number • Plymouth Plantation was a backwater • Puritan Great Migration began in 1630 • 40,000 colonists in decade, so dominated colony • Puritans formed a joint stock company – Massachusetts Bay Co. • Left meeting place blank, so held meetings in New England to get away from English control Puritan Beliefs • Original sin – humans born sinful – “In Adam’s Fall, We Sinned All” in N.E. schoolbooks • Predestination – John Calvin – God had plan for all humans, but it was unknown to all – God only chose some people to be saved from Hell – One could live well, have revelatory experience (God revealed), then prob. going to heaven – but still up to God • Puritans adapted Calvin’s beliefs – God was rational – one could be pretty sure of salvation • Life on earth would be good indicator of salvation – live religious life, work hard • Puritan diaries filled with angst about whether they would be chosen for heaven Puritans vs. Chesapeake: Based on what you learned about the Chesapeake colonies, how would you compare Puritan MA? Puritans • Puritans focused on controlling behavior while on earth – punishment on earth for bad behavior • Puritans more religiously motivated • Required to go to Church • No separation of Church and state • Migrated as families and lived longer • More healthy enviro. Chesapeake • Profit motive • Individualism • Religion not as central • Dispersed settlements • Majority of population were indentured servants • Free-wheeling in first generations • Gender imbalance • Unhealthy enviro., death normal thing Puritan Migration • Puritans came as families, multiple generations • More balanced sex ratio than Chesapeake • Lower mortality rates – 1st generation = 72 yrs old • Healthier environment, less disease • 7/8 of children reached adulthood • Compare to Chesapeake migration and settlement Puritan Settlement and the Land • John Cotton, “The Divine Right to Occupy the Land,” 1630 – – – – – God gives land to chosen people People placed on land – passive Justified war against heathens Vacant land or unused can be taken Migration and settlement justified to ‘gain knowledge’, profit economically, use talents, or plant a colony/church – To flee persecution or debts • Thoughts? Criticisms? Covenant: Puritan Migration, Settlement, and Leadership • John Winthrop, “A Modell of Christian Charity,” 1630 • Covenants on diff. levels: bound family, community, group, classes, and God together • Different forms of covenantal bonds in Winthrop’s “Modell”? – Between Puritans and God – success = God’s approval – Covenant between individual and God – Christian life, belief = good hope for salvation (heaven) – Covenant of settlement and migration – City Upon a Hill – symbol to Europe – Covenant between leaders and led; wealthy and poor Family Covenant • Family Life – Patriarchal family – man was head of household; women expected to marry and have children; unmarried looked down upon or spurned – Relationships between husband and wife? (Bradstreet poems) • • • • Loving, companionate marriage Focus on earthly love and devotion Women’s role = family, home, religious devotion Pride in children and growth of family – Conflicts between love and patriarchy? Covenant & The Land Relationship between covenant and settlement on land: – Puritans wanted competency – enough land to live on – focus on subsistence at first, not as much on profits for self or king – But not equality – prominent deserved more land – Focus on community – town decided which land would be used, worked on what day – Town meeting – at first, only elect (saved) voted, had best interests of community – Covenant bound church and community members to town and land – Focus on benefits to included members – keeping out excluded “others” – Different methods of settlement than Chesapeake Democracy in MA? • Based on the document readings, do you think MA was a democracy? (Cotton, Winthrop) • Why or why not? Trouble on the City on a Hill • Religious dissenters – problems of inclusion and exclusion, purity and tolerance • Land Hunger – conflicts with Native Americans • Economic problems • Relations with England/Crown • Question: What issues or problems strengthened the Puritan covenant? Which weakened it? Roger Williams • Roger Williams – critical of Puritan leadership and values – raised issues of P exclusion and intolerance – Believed to be more dangerous b/c he was a minister – Disagreed with church leadership on relationship between church and state – Believed in toleration – people shouldn’t be forced to join or attend church – Exclusion was wrong – Disagreed on treatment and relations with Native Americans – Williams believed N.A. deserved respect; relations of peace; bargaining or buying of land – Williams banished from MA in 1636; founded R.I. in 1644 Anne Hutchinson • Came to MA in 1634, was a midwife and educated by father • Held religious meetings in her home and discussed sermons of ministers • Accused of heresies: teaching men, evaluating ministers’ beliefs, antinomianism (belief that God was talking directly to individuals) • Banished from MA Anne Hutchinson • Trial transcript • Major issues? – Women’s role in church – Male dominated – Who has right to relate to God? Interpret God’s will or message? – Tradition vs. change – Maintaining purity through exclusion – Can community or covenant remain strong with dissent? Salem Witch Trials, 1692 • Combination of social, economic, religious, and cultural factors led to witch hunt and trials • Puritan belief in witches not unique, but heightened focus on outcasts, women, poor – exclusionary tendency in Puritan life • Focus on conformity, correct women’s roles in society • Heightened surveillance of others b/c of frontier Indian war and commercial development – suspicion of others, constant rumors • Tituba, a slave, crystal ball, hysterical young women accused T of being witch • Two Sarahs (Goode and Osgoode) accused of casting spells, one typical outcast, the other an argumentative woman - outsiders • Tituba confessed and accused dozens of others • 48 people claimed spells put on them • 200 accused; 50 confessed – why? -- Confessors wouldn’t be executed, but had to rat out teachers of witchcraft Religious Change • Problem of declension – 2nd and 3rd generations not as religious – What could be done to increase membership and those saved? – worry that children wouldn’t go to heaven – Halfway covenant, 1662 – children of members could participate in church – way of appealing to younger generations to become involved • Problem of religious schism – search for purity of experience led to divisions, criticism of leaders – 1st and 2nd Great Awakening – Reform movements – perfection on earth Puritan Religious Problems Angst George Henry Boughton, “The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church,” 1867 Puritans: Lesson #2 • Readings before class: Cronon, Changes in the Land, Chapters 2,3,4,7 • Main Topics: Problems of “Real Life” – Puritan Land Hunger and Relations with Native Americans – Wars – Economic problems and issues – Relations with England • Question: What issues or problems strengthened the Puritan covenant? Which weakened it? Online Question and Discussion (to be completed before class) • First, type up what you believe to be Cronon’s main thesis in 2 sentences or less • Then choose 4 main points from Cronon that support his thesis and type them in your online journal, giving citations of pages from text • Comment on the points of another group member • Bring your Cronon thesis and 4 main points to class Covenant & The Land (Review from Lesson #1) Relationship between covenant and settlement on land: – Puritans wanted competency – enough land to live on – focus on subsistence at first, not as much on profits for self or king – But not equality – prominent deserved more land – Focus on community – town decided which land would be used, worked on what day – Town meeting – only elect (saved) voted, had best interests of community – Covenant bound church and community members to town and land – Focus on benefits to included – keeping out excluded – Different methods of settlement than Chesapeake Puritans and the Land (Review from Lesson #1) • John Cotton, “The Divine Right to Occupy the Land,” 1630 – – – – – God gives land to chosen people People placed on land – passive Justified war against heathens Vacant land or unused can be taken Migration and settlement justified to ‘gain knowledge’, profit economically, use talents, or plant a colony/church – To flee persecution or debts • Thoughts? Criticisms? Group Discussion • Break up into designated groups • Get out your thesis and 4 main points from Cronon • Discuss and compose a joint version of Cronon’s thesis and 4 supporting points to present to class Cronon’s Thesis • Group 1 • Group 2 • Group 3 • Group 4 Cronon: Main Issues • Contrast N.A. and Puritan uses of land, economies, enviro. impact • N.A. practices had less impact on enviro. • Puritans brought attitude toward enviro. from England • But N.A. did actively change enviro. to live • N.A. land practices benefited Puritans • Puritans and N.A. had diff. definitions of property • Puritan def. of property required N.A. exclusion, brought about greater enviro. change Native American Power and Influence • Native American traditions of power and influence – tactics? (from Cronon) – – – – – – Intermarriage with other clans Ability to muster support, respect Reciprocal gift giving and exchange Cementing of alliances War as one option Use of captives to replace those lost in war • Pequot War and King Philip’s War show breakdown of traditional tactics Pequot War, 1637 • Context: prior diseases decimated tribes, power vacuum • Relations between tribes and clans threatened by European settlement - competition among tribes for influence with Europeans for fur trade • Mohegans allied with English; Pequots with Dutch • Attacks on Pequot traders; predatory Euro. traders broke rules of reciprocity: gifts between groups sign of respect, alliance, rather than just commercial transaction • Competition and attacks between Indians and allies • Conflict over land in CT river valley • Pequots already had more positive relationships with Dutch and French fur traders – D & F were willing to engage in reciprocal relations of trade Pequot War (continued) • • • • Difference between fur trade and settled farmers Puritans wanted land and permanent settlement Pequots preferred reciprocity of fur trade Narragansetts and Puritans had close relations, so Puritans got Ns to attack Pequots • Puritans not happy with progress of war, so wiped out Pequots • Used Bible to justify war; test of their will; Bible justified Israel’s decimation of other tribes too Pequots caught between expanding Puritan settlements Pequot War, Mystic Massacre • Puritan leaders called out the militia and enlisted dissident Pequots and some 500 Narragansetts to help attack a Pequot fort on the Mystic River • Shelter for Pequot women and children • English surrounded the fort, set fire to it, and killed many of the Pequot people who tried to escape • Between 400 and 700 died • Puritans hunted down Pequot men • Few survivors were handed over to the native allies of the English as payment for their services or were sold into slavery to other colonies • Question: Were Pequots victims? Pequot village near present-day Mystic, CT – site of massacre Puritans and Indians George Henry Boughton, “The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church,” 1867 King Philip’s War, 1675-77 • Wampanoags had been decimated by disease early in century; had used whites for protection • King Philip, or Metacomet, Chief of Wampanoags – unhappy with treatment of N.A.: punishment for crimes; land-hungry expansion; bad treaties that ripped-off N.A. • K.P. convinced Ws and Narragansetts to unite to fight whites • Got within 20 miles of Boston; defeated several towns • Of 90 Puritan towns, 52 attacked • 1/7 of Puritan towns destroyed - took 40 years to rebuild and resettle lands Puritans had before war • Insecurity created by war had impact on Puritan mentality and religious belief – Suspicion and paranoia contributed to Salem witch hunt – Puritans questioned why God had punished them King Philip’s War (continued) • Philip reached out to Mohawks to join war against Puritans • Instead, Mohawks attacked and defeated Wampanoags and Narragansetts • King Philip/Metacomet killed by musket fire in 1677 • @600 whites and 8000 Native Americans killed • Whites gained control of land area • Mohawks and Iroquois became leading intermediaries in trade with whites and Native Americans • Question: Did King Philip have power? • Lesson: Europeans affected Native American politics and power relations; played tribes against one another; certain tribes took advantage of situation for increase power Economic Trends and Problems • Economic changes in 18th-century New England • How could Puritans maintain purity of religious purpose with economic change? • Increased Atlantic commerce: Triangle Trade based on wealth created by West Indies slave-grown and produced sugar • Growth of N.E. shipping industry and ports, trade with England and other colonies • Puritans took part in consumer revolution • Bought consumer goods like tea, household goods, ostentatious consumer goods, slaves • New England increased bonds of unity with England in this period Atlantic Triangle Trade Group Discussion • Break up into groups • Discuss: Based on what you know of Puritan religious and social beliefs, answer the following question: If Puritans were hoping to create a Society of Christian Love on Earth, how could they justify engagement in Atlantic slave, rum, and gun trade? • Be ready to discuss with the rest of the class Economic Issues and Conflicts • Problem of declension (decline) from religious focus and farming (competency) • Less land available – how will children get competency? • Opportunities for wealth through commerce • Belief in hierarchical society anyway, so justified differences in wealth and power • But commerce conflicted with P beliefs in community • Increased inequality, relationship of rich to poor • One solution: Wealthy started own churches so they wouldn’t have to feel bad • Questions: Did Puritans become the very thing they had left in England? What did economic change do to the covenant? Puritan Economic Angst George Henry Boughton, “The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church,” 1867 Problems with England • Benign neglect during 17th century - ignored – English Civil War in 1640s – Puritans (in England) took power and killed king – Throne restored, however (raised questions of what would happen to N.E. Puritans who had supported civil war in England) – 1664 Charles II granted New England, and New Netherlands to his brother James – James allowed New England to keep its own laws • Why was England’s neglect of N.E. important? Puritans and Mercantilism • Mercantilist goals of England – force colonies to guide economic benefits to mother country • Raw materials from colonies • Colonies should then buy finished goods from England • Navigation Acts in 1660s to enforce mercantilism: English ships, sailors, goods to and from England • But N.E. didn’t have much raw materials or a plantation economy to send to England • Instead, N.E. had shipping which competed with British ships, got around laws, traded with competing nations • N.E. wanted more free trade, not mercantilism • Puritans not obeying Navigation Acts, so England taxed them and reorganized govt. Atlantic Triangle Trade Fight for Control • England unhappy w/ N.E. circumvention of Navigation Acts, so created new colony, Dominion of New England from Maine to NJ • Got rid of colonial assemblies and enforced religious toleration • During Glorious Revolution, 1688-89, Puritans retook colonies from Anglicans/Royalists • But with reinstatement of monarchy, English asserted tighter control, creating Royal Colony of MA, new navigation acts and taxes • Later in 1715 Parliament took control of colonies, virtual representation in Parliament • MA and other New England Colonies had same structure, but actual representation • Outcome? Trajectory? Where was this headed? Relations with England: Looking into the Future George Henry Boughton, “The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church,” 1867 Major Themes & Questions • • • • • • Who were the Puritans? What did they believe? Why did they come to North America? Differences from Chesapeake settlers? The Puritan Covenants – Inclusion and Exclusion Conflicts between purity and living in the “real world” – – – – Religious conflicts – inclusion and exclusion Land Hunger & Conflicts with Native Americans Economic issues and problems Conflicts with England Continuing Issues and Questions • How did New England’s relationship with England evolve? What led to the American Revolution? • How did Puritan religious views change in the 18th century? • Considering the contours (advantages & disadvantages) of the New England economy, where would descendants of Puritans place their economic energy?