Sept. 24, 2010 temptations 2. disciples 3. butterflies 4. journeys 5. bamboos 6. evangelists 7. heroes 8. leaves 9. giraffes 10. women 1. 11. salmon 12. scissors 13. proceeds 14. measles 15. aeronautics 16. alumni 17. indices/indexes 18. curricula/ curriculums 19. analyses 20. editors-in-chief Why form the plural? When you speak or write, it is important to let your listener or reader know if: you are talking about just ONE person, place, or thing (singular) or talking about TWO or MORE (plural) How do you form the plural of nouns? There are basic rules that we follow to change a singular noun into its plural form. When you were younger, you learned that to change the singular form to its plural form, just add –s/–es to the noun. Ex. skirt branch skirts branches However, there are more rules… 1. nouns ending in “y” If the singular noun ends in “y,” change the “y” to “i” then add –es. However, if there is a vowel before the “y,” just add –s. SINGULAR PLURAL butterfly butterflies candy candies journey journeys valley valleys 2. nouns ending in “o” a. If the letter before the “o” is a vowel, add –s to the singular form. SINGULAR PLURAL bamboo bamboos b. Generally, if the letter before the “o” is a consonant just add –es to the singular form. SINGULAR PLURAL hero heroes radio radios mango mangoes studio studios tomato tomatoes Exceptions to rule #2 Some nouns ending with “o” that have a consonant before it form the plural by adding –s. SINGULAR PLURAL Filipino Filipinos piano pianos solo solos alto altos 3. nouns ending in “f” and “fe” For most nouns ending in “f” and “fe”, change the “f” or “fe” to “v” then add –es. SINGULAR PLURAL leaf leaves thief thieves wife wives knife knives Exceptions to rule #3 There are some nouns ending in “f/fe” that just add –s to form their plural. There are also some where BOTH the –ves and –s forms are accepted as plural. SINGULAR PLURAL giraffe giraffes roof roofs hoof hoofs/hooves dwarf dwarfs/dwarves 4. nouns that change their spelling Some nouns change their spelling to form their plural. SINGULAR PLURAL woman women foot feet mouse mice ox oxen 5. nouns with the SAME singular and plural forms A few nouns have the same form in both the singular and plural. You can use them either way. SINGULAR PLURAL salmon salmon sheep sheep Chinese Chinese Japanese Japanese 6. nouns that can ONLY be plural Some nouns can only be used in plural form. Always use them with the –s at the end. SINGULAR PLURAL - proceeds - scissors - goods - tweezers 7. nouns that end in –s but are actually singular There are nouns that look plural but are actually singular in meaning and use. SINGULAR PLURAL aeronautics - measles - economics - news - 8. nouns with foreign origins Nouns that have foreign origins usually change their spelling to form the plural. However, for some nouns that have been in the English language for a long time, adding –s/–es to them have already become acceptable. SINGULAR PLURAL alumna alumnae alumnus alumni curriculum curricula/ curriculums index indices/ indexes 9. compound nouns Compound nouns usually form the plural by adding –s/–es to the main/principal word. SINGULAR PLURAL father-in-law fathers-in-law editor-in-chief editors-in-chief passer-by passers-by cross-stitch cross-stitches 10. letters, numbers, and symbols For letters, numbers, and symbols, add apostrophe and an –s (’s) to form the plural. SINGULAR PLURAL t t’s 5 5’s ’s ? ?’s Quick Check: Say and spell the plural form 1. monkey 2. studio 3. tomato 4. piano 5. loaf 6. wife 7. cliff 8. goose 9. sheep 10. alumnus 11. crisis 12. brother-in-law Change the words in parentheses into their correct plural form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I bought a lot of (candy) from the nearby store. Some packages came with surprise (toy) inside. The (radio) in the AVR are all in good working order. The (potato) in the garden are almost ready for picking. Most (Filipino) love eating sweets. The (leaf) in the tree were blown by the strong wind. 7. The (giraffe) in the zoo are well-fed. 8. Both my front (tooth) are about to fall off! 9. Many (Chinese) sell things in the market. 10. The (alumna) of St. Pedro Poveda College will have a reunion next week. 11. The (passer-by) were all curious about the event in the gym. 12. Poveda and Ateneo have different (curriculum). 6. On your own: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The (lady) in the department store bought items on sale. Our (life) are full of challenges. As we take our (journey) in life, we must be persevering and determined. The (piano) in the music store are shiny! The (thief) attempted to get into the computer store. During the typhoon, many (roof) were blown away. 7. The (woman) in our village donated some clothes and clean water to the victims. 8. The (alumnus) of Xavier School also gathered to think of projects to help the victims. 9. Scientists made several (analysis) on what caused the flooding. 6. 10. My mother’s (sister-in-law) called her to help in their project. 11. How many (c) are there in the word occasion? 12. Several (deer) grazed in the grassy field.