Integrated Course of College English The Second Two Periods Unit Two Book four Designed by SHAO Hong-wan Reading and Translation • • • • • • Review—Match the words with their meanings Reading the text in detail Reading Skill—Broadening Eye Span Translate the following phrases into English Translate the following sentences into Chinese Explanations to New Words Match the words with their meanings Directions: Match each word in Column A with a word from column B that has the similar meaning. The first one has been done for you as an example. B A Words we are learning now C 1. turn_________ H 2. hence_______ E 3. ample________ F 4. progress______ G 5. region________ I 6. fundamental____ B 7. dependent______ A 8. expend_________ D 9. convert________ Words we have learned before A. spend B. relying C. inclination D. change E. plentiful F. advance G. area H. therefore I. basic 10. scarce_________ O 11. meet___________ N 12. consume________ L 13. resource_________ M 14. accumulate_______ K 15. expenditure_______ J J. spending K. collect L. use M. supply N. satisfy O. rare Comprehension of the text 1. Choose the best answer for each of the following: D B D D A C B C Part Division of the Text Parts Line. 1 1~6 It is energy, not love or money, that makes the world go round. 7~70 Take the deer as an example to explain the life of wild animals round the year and how they can survive during the hard times in winter. 71~74 Life depends on energy, thus the cycle continues. 2 3 Main Ideas Scanning Directions: Scan the text and discuss in pairs, list the facts about the life of deer in four seasons. 1. Summer: eat as much as they can, storing the excess in the form of fat; active in growing, reproducing or storing fat adult males: grow antlers and get fat adult females: give birth to young; produce milk fawns: become less dependent on their mother’s milk and begin to search for growing plants as food 2. Fall: continue to eat high quality food in order to deposit fat for the winter 3. Winter: reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and lower their metabolism; use the reserves of fat to survive the cold winter 4. Spring: become active again Blank Filling Directions: Read the first part of the text carefully, then fill in the blanks. Some persons say that love makes the world _________. go round Others of a less romantic and more practical __________ turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is _______ energy currency that makes the world go round. Energy is the ________of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food into energy, which ________ in turn is converted ___________ is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle depends all life________. 2. Answer the following questions: 1) According to the author, what makes the world go around? Energy. 2) What is the cycle on which all life depends? Life become possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. 3) How do wild animals survive the hard times in winter? They eat as much as they can during times of plenty in the summer and fall, storing the excess usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. 4) What is the best time for milk production? When new plant growth is available because milk production is also energy consuming. 5) What is the use of fat deer accumulate in summer and fall? Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes are difficult to reach because of deep snow. 6) What changes take place in deer when winter draws near? Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer become darker and thicker. 7) What further safeguard does nature provide to help deer survive the winter? An internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. 8) What changes take place in deer’s behavior when they lower their metabolism? They become sleepy and drowsy. 9) What will happen to deer if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for a long time? They will die and the only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. 10) What is the fundamental rule of life or wild, free wandering animals? The largest and strongest ones will survive the hard conditions---the survival of the fittest Basic Reading Skill VI——Broadening Eye Span Reading is composed of a series of fixations which the eye makes while viewing a printed line. During these fixation pauses, the material viewed is translated into meanings by the brain. A good reader will make three to four fixations for an ordinary line of print; the poor reader eight to twelve or more. One can increase the eye span by consciously controlling his fixations. But, merely knowing the fact is not enough. You can say to yourself, “Now I understand how to use wide fixations,” but you will have as little success as the person who has memorized the principles of swimming and then jumps into the water for a race. To be an efficient reader, one has to practice continuously until the coordination between eye and mind becomes habitual and automatic. Key to Exercise A: 1.F 2.T 3.T 4.T 5.F 6.T 7.T 8.F Useful Expressions 1. 能源危机 energy crisis 2. 金融危机 financial crisis 3. 节能 conserve energy 4. 更重实际的人 people of a more practical mind 5. 生态体系 ecological system 6. 反过来 in turn 7. 转化成 convert into 8. 一个相关的好例子 a good case in point 10. 生理上成熟 nutritious food physically mature 11. 生育 give birth to 9. 富含营养的食物 12. 搜寻 13. 满足需求 14. 储存脂肪 15. 银行帐户 16. 充足的食物供给 17. 内在生理反应 18. 减缓新陈代谢 search for meet one’s needs deposit fat bank accounts abundant food supply internal physiological response 20. 度过难关 lower metabolism hibernation pull sb. through 21. 生命的基本规律 fundamental rule of life 22. 慢下来 slow down 19. 冬眠 1. Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. 有人说爱情驱使世界运转，另一些不那么浪漫更注重实际的人说不是爱情 而是金钱。但实际上是能量驱使世界运转。 2. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. 能量是生态系统的硬通货，只有当食物转变成能量，能量再用来获取更多的食物 以供生长、繁殖和生存。 3. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. 一只成熟健壮的母鹿，在十一月怀胎，五月底或六月初生下两只幼鹿，这时，它 必须寻找食物已获得必要的能量，这不仅是为了满足自身的需要，而且也是为了 给幼鹿生产乳汁。 4. In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. 至于雌鹿和幼鹿由于大量的能量用于产奶或生长，脂肪的积累速度不如完全成 熟的雄鹿快。 5. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. 脂肪储备如同银行里的存款，供冬天食物来源不足时和有时由于雪深难以获得时 支取使用。 6. But in addition, nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter — an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. 此外，大自然还为鹿提供进一步的保护以帮助它们度过冬天----体内生理机能作 相应调节，放慢新陈代谢，亦即生理活动的速度，从而降低能量的消耗。 7. Although deer don’t hibernate, they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism. 虽然鹿不冬眠但他们随着季节改变新陈代谢节奏的习性则是一样的。 8. Not every winter is critical for deer of course. If the winter has light snow, survival and productivity next spring will be high. 当然，对鹿来说，并非每个冬天都处于危难之中。如果冬天雪下得少，存活率和 次年春天的繁殖力就高。 9. If such conditions go on for too long some will die, and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. That is a fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals such as deer. 如果这种情况持续太久，有些鹿就要死亡，只有体型最大最壮的，才有可能存活。 对于像鹿这样四处自由奔走的野生动物来说，这是一条根本的生存规律。 Translate the following sentences into English: 1.比尔已是个成熟的小伙子，不再依赖父母替他作主。 mature / no longer / be dependent on / for decisions Bill is a mature young man who is no longer dependent on his parents for decisions. 2.这个地区有大量肉类供应，但新鲜果蔬奇缺。 abundant supplies scarce There are abundant supplies of meat in this region, but fresh fruit and vegetables are scarce. 3.工程师们依靠工人们的智慧，发明了一种新的生产方法，使生产率得以提高。 draw on / wisdom / production method / productivity Drawing on the wisdom of the workers, the engineers invented a new production method that led to increased productivity. 4.他花了许多时间准备数学考试，因此当他获知自己只得了个B时感到有点 失望。spend…doing… learn that somewhat He spent a lot of time preparing for his math exam. Hence he was somewhat disappointed to learn that he got only a B. 5.我们有充裕的时间从从容容吃顿午饭。 ample leisurely We have ample time for a leisurely lunch. 6.地方政府不得不动用储备粮并采取其他紧急措施，以便渡过粮食危机。 draw on/grain reserves/take emergency measures/pull through The local government had to draw on its grain reserves and take other emergency measures so as to pull through the food crisis. 7.史密史教授从教三十年，积累了丰富的教学经验。 Prof. Smith has been engaged in teaching for more than thirty years and has accumulated a great deal of teaching experience. 8. 我急需用钱，因此不得不动用我的积蓄。 As I needed money urgently, I had to draw on my reserves. 9. 我能听见有人在楼上走动。 I can hear someone moving about upstairs. 10. 你知道如何将旧货币兑换成新货币吗？ Do you know how to convert the old currency into the new? 11.他将他的建议以问题的形式提出来。 He put his suggestions in the form of questions. 12. 如果你觉得很热，可以把暖气调低一点。 You could turn down the heating a bit if you feel too hot. 13. 医生帮助她从漫长而难治的疾病中恢复了健康。 The doctor has pulled her through the long and difficult illness. 14. 这条河里有大量的鱼。 The river is abundant in fish. 15. 这个地区的石油储量正在减少。 The oil reserves in this region are shrinking. 16.政府决定将公共事业开支削减5%。 The government has decided to cut down on the public expenditure by 5%. Directions: Translate the following Chinese paragraphs into English. 仅仅几个世纪以前，人们的能源几乎全部又木头和水组成。木头被 燃烧，用来给房屋供暖和烹饪食物；水则被用来推磨。当时人们尚未发 现电。 现在我们的 能源储备主要是又煤、石油和天然气组成，并且这些东 西又用来发电，使机器远转，给楼房提供暖气和冷气，而且还为我们做 许多其他的事情。 不过这些燃料不可能永远用下去。在有些地方电已经十分短缺。有 的科学家认为只有太阳能能满足世界对电力的巨大需求。问题在于要找 到一种利用地球每天从太阳那里获得的巨大能量的办法。 Only a few centuries ago, our energy supply was made up almost entirely of wood and water. Wood was burnt to heat homes and to cook food. Water was used to turn grinding stones. People had not yet discovered electricity. At present, our energy supply consists of coal, oil and natural gas. These, in turn produce electricity, which runs machines , heats and cools buildings, and does a lot other jobs for us. Nevertheless, these fuels will not last for ever. Electricity in some places has been in short supply. Some scientists believe that solar energy is the only kind which can meet the world’s enormous need for power. The issue has been to find a way to use tremendous power which the earth receives from the sun every day. Directions：Translate the following English paragraphs into Chinese. The energy problem is not a shirt – term crisis. Geologist estimate that 8 percent of all the oil reserves in the U.S. will be used up before the year 2000. We might even come to the end of our coal reserves, abundant as they are, before another century is over. Americans have been confronted with this situation suddenly. Many are unprepared because of our habits and traditions and our national life based on a history of material abundance. Much of our energy consumption of all kinds is wasted. The industrial and personal practices that create this waste are habitual, even traditional. Whether in designing and constructing a new building, in manufacturing another conveniently disposable item, in tossing used containers into the garbage, or in any number of things we do as matter of course, wasting of energy is involved. We have integrated waste into the fabric of economic lives to the point where we are seldom really conscious of it on a day-to-day basis. Changing this deep-rooted attitude is as much a part of coping with our long-range energy problem as are the practical steps we must take. 能源问题不是短期存在危机。据地质学家估计，美国所有的石油储备的 80%在2000年前消耗殆尽。我们煤炭储备尽管目前还很丰富，也很可能在下世纪 末以前枯竭。美国突然发现自己已经面临种形势。因为我们的习惯和传统缘故， 也因为在物质丰富的历史条件下形成的生活方式，许多人还没有作好面对这种 局面的准备。 我们消耗的各种能源中有很大部分都是浪费了的。工业和个人所造成 的这种浪费行为已是习以为常，甚至具有历史传统。无论是新建筑的设计和建 造过程中、还是在制造不同的一次性产品时，或是在往垃圾箱中扔用过的易拉 罐时，或在我们做一些我们认为理所当然的事情时，都存在能源浪费现象。浪 费已渗透到我们经济生活方方面面，以至于我们在日常生活中很少意识到它的 存在。我们要对付长期存在能源危机，改变这种根深蒂固的态度和必须采取可 行的措施一样重要。 1. turn of mind: adj. a characteristic tendency or way of thinking eg: • He has an optimistic turn of mind. 他是一个乐观的人。 • 因为他的想法奇怪，行为也和别人极为不同。 With a very peculiar turn of mind, he behaves very differently from anyone else. 2. accumulate: v. make or become greater in number or quantity; collect or gather little by little 他很快收敛大笔财富。 He quickly accumulated a large fortune. 他的人生道路上不幸接踪而来。 Misfortunes accumulated on his life path. 3. convert into: 1) change into • 最后的努力反败为胜。 One last effort converted defeat into victory. • 这家旅馆已改造成办公楼。 The hotel has been converted into an office building. 2) cause (a person) to change his beliefs, etc. • 他们已经改信佛教。 They have converted to Buddhism. Collocation: convert from convert to （使）改变; 改变原来对……的信仰 改信…… 4. in turn: 1) in due course or succession • He that shuts Love out, in turn shall be shut out from Love. (Tennyson) 将爱拒之门外的人，反过来会被爱拒之门外。（丁尼生） 2) one after another • He has applied for various positions in turn as an agent, an accountant and a sales manager. 我们依次看望了每一个老朋友。 • We visited each old friend in turn. Collocation: 轮流地；交替地 by turns 不依照顺序地 out of turn 起变化 take a turn at the turn (of the century) 在（世纪） 交替时期 5. excess: n. 1) the part that is more than necessary • An excess of enthusiasm is not always a good thing. 过度热衷不是一件好事。 • 饮食中脂肪过量能导致心脏病。 An excess of fat in one’s diet can lead to heart disease. 2) going beyond the normal or accepted limits • Luggage in excess of 100 kg will be charged extra. 行李超过100公斤要加价。 • 暴饮暴食无益于健康。 Excess at table is seldom healthful. 3) behavior that goes too far; violence • He drinks to excess. • 他的过分行为导致了离婚。 His excesses led to the divorce. in excess of 超过 Collocation: to excess 过度；过量 6. reserve: 1. n. 1) sth. kept for later use 有些动物在秋季储备大量的食物，以防冬季挨饿。 Some animals keep a great reserve of food in fall to keep from starving in winter. 充分利用人才储备很重要。 To make full use of vast reserves of talent is of great importance. 2) a piece of land kept for a (stated) purpose Laws and regulations are made to protect the wildlife reserves. 人们制定了保护野生动植物的保护区的法律条文。 他在自然保护区拍了很多狮子的照片。 He took a lot of photos of the lions in the nature reserves. 2. vt. keep for special purpose 我用星期一来整理书桌和回信。 I reserve Mondays for tidying my desk and answering letters. 这些座位是留给贵宾的。 These seats are reserved for special guests. Collocation: in reserve 备用 without reserve 毫无保留地，无条件地 reserve, preserve & conserve 这三个动词均有“保持，保存”之意。 reserve 正式用词，指为了将来的用途或其他用途而保存、保留。 preserve 主要指为防止损害、变质等而保存。 conserve 一般指保存自然资源，保全人的精力、力量等。 Directions:Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. You can ____________ meat or fish in salt. preserve 2. If you get there early, __________ me a seat. reserve 3. People tried to keep the thermostat lower to ___________ conserve energy. preserve 4. It is one of the duties of the police to ____________ public order. conserving my strength 5. I’m not being lazy － I’m just ____________ for later. reserve 6. I ___________ judgment on this issue until we have more information. 7. scarce: adj. 1) insufficient to meet a demand or requirement; short in supply 干旱季节新鲜蔬菜奇缺。 Fresh vegetables were scarce during the drought. 第二次世界大战期间，黄油奇缺，要定量配给。 During World War II, butter was scarce and was rationed. 2) not easy to find or obtain; rare 食物和清洁的水变得越来越稀少。 Food and clean water were becoming scarce. 这书现在很难找到。 This book is now scarce. scarce, rare & uncommon 这三个形容词均含“稀罕的，很少发生”之意。 CF: scarce 指暂时不易发现、不存在或数量不足，供不应求的东西。 rare 指难得发生的事或难遇见的人或事，侧重特殊性。 uncommon 指一般不发生或很少发生的事情，故显得独特、异常 与例外。 Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. 1. It’s not __________ uncommon for people to become ill when they travel. scarce 2. It was wartime and food was __________. 3. The museum is full of __________ and precious treasures. rare 4. Good food is ___________in winter, and costs a lot. scarce 5. Accidents due to failure of safety equipment are rare __________ nowadays. 8. a good case in point: a good example of what is being talked about 他很自私，他不愿帮助他兄弟就是一个好例子。 He is rather selfish. His unwillingness to help his brother is a good case in point. 缺乏沟通引起严重的问题他们的婚姻就是一个例子。 Lack of communication causes serious problems and their marriage is a case in point. Collocation: in case 以防；如果；倘若 倘使 in case of in any case 无论如何 in no case 9. conceive: vt. 1) become pregnant with (young) Our first child was conceived in March and born in December. 2) form (an idea, plan, etc.) in the mind; think of; imagine We never conceived that there are such beautiful lakes until we came here. 她认为这样做是她的职责。 She conceived it her duty to do so. NB: conceive 还可以作不及物动词,构成短语 “ conceive of（构想出,设 想）”，例如： Can you conceive of such cruelty? It is difficult to conceive of a plan to poverty. 10. give birth to: bear, bring forth, produce 这个城市培养了许多伟人。 The town has given birth to quite a few great men. 克林顿一案引起了全国范围的一场争论。 Clinton’s case gave birth to a dispute all over the country. Collocation: 相信；称赞； give credit to give ear / eye to 仔细听或看； give effect to 使实行；使实现； give place to give way to 让位于；为……所替代 向……让步；让位于 11. deposit: vt. put or store for safe keeping; keep (money) in a bank 她刚刚把一大笔钱存到她的帐户上。 She deposited her bag in the cloakroom. 她刚刚在她的帐户里存了一大笔钱。 She had just deposited a large sum of money in her account. Collocation: deposit … in deposit … with 在……存储 把……交给……保管 12. expend: vt. spend or use up 他们已经花了好几年的时间来解这道题。 They have expended years in working out the problem. 学生在毕业论文上倾注大量的精力。 The students expended much care on their graduation papers. CF: expend, spend & cost 这三个动词均含“花费”之意。 expend 较正式用词，通常指为某一专门目的而花费大量金钱、时间或精力。 spend 普通用词，与cost基本同义，但主语必须是人。 cost 花费时间、金钱、劳力等。其主语是物，而不能由人充当，也不用被动形式。 Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. Governments ____________ a lot of resources on war. expended 2. It ___________ a lot to buy a house in this part of London. costs 3. I don’t know how I managed to __________ so much in spent the pub last night. 4. They __________ expended all their strength in trying to climb out. 5. Don’t ___________ such a lot of time in dressing yourself. spend cost 6. Her irresponsible behavior __________ her father many sleepless nights. expended 7. You ____________ so much effort for so little return. 13. draw on: make use of; secure funds from 他最新小说主要取材于他部队生活经历。 His latest novel draws heavily on his experience in the army. 政府决定动用它的黄金储备来度过财政危机。 The government decided to draw on its gold reserves to get over the financial crisis. Collocation: draw apart draw aside draw away draw off draw out 越离越远 拉到一边 拉开距离 排掉（水等）；脱去 开出，取出存款 14. spot: 1. n. 1) a usually round area on a surface differing sharply in color from the rest 豹跟虎哪一个身上有斑点? Which has spots, the leopard or the tiger? 2) a popular place or area, especially a pleasant place where you spend time This looks like a nice spot for a picnic. 这座古城有许多可供参观的名胜。 There are a lot of spots to visit in the old city. 2. v. to have small round marks or small pieces of something on the surface 这种墨水会造成擦洗不掉的污渍。 The ink spots permanently. 15. rate: n. the speed at which something happens or changes 他脉搏的跳动突然降低。 His pulse-rate dropped suddenly. 按你这样的工作速度, 你绝对做不完。 At the rate you work, you’ll never finish. speed, rate& pace 这三个名词均含“速度、速率”之意。 speed通用词，指单位时间内行进的固定速度或速率，也指可能达到的最高速度。 rate 作“速度”讲时，与speed同义，可换用。作速率解时，指相对增长的速度， 也指两种相比较而得出的标准速度。 pace 普通用词，指步行的速度，常引申指活动的进度或生产率。 Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. pace with you. 1. Could you slow down a bit － I can’t keep ______ 2. The car has a top ________ speed of 155 miles per hour. 3. I don’t like the________ of modern life. pace 4. You should lower your ______ rate as you approach a junction. 5. The taxi was going at a tremendous _______. speed 16. somewhat: adv. more than a little but not very 在过去的几年中这景点改变得不多。 The resort has changed somewhat over the last few years. 她比过去自信了一点 She’s somewhat more confident than she used to be. 17. abundant: adj. more than enough Small as it is, this country has abundant supplies of oil and natural gas． 中国自然资源丰富。 China has abundant natural resources. abundant & plentiful 这两个形容词均有“充分的、丰富的”之意。 abundant 着重某物极为丰富或有大量的供应。例如: We have abundant proof of his guilt. 我们有充分的证据证明他有罪。 Courage was abundant among the volunteers. 志愿人员都勇气十足。 plentiful 普通用词，指某物的数量多得称心如意，不过剩，但较少用于 描写抽象之物。例如: Eggs are plentiful at the moment. 现在鸡蛋很多。 18. not every: not each or all members of a group Not every horse can run fast. 班上并非所有的学生考试都及格了。 Not every student in the class passed the examination. Not every … / Both … not / Not all … / All … no所表达的意思不同。 一般来说，all, every 和both均用于肯定句中，因为它们都有各自的否定形式，即 none, no和neither。但当这三个代词与否定词not连用时，表示部分否定，即“并 非都（是）”的意思。not + always, not + and也表示部分否定。请看下面例子 1. All is not lost. 并非一切都失去了。 2. All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的并非都是金子。 3. Not all criminals can be reformed. 并非所有的罪犯都能改造好。 4. Not every President is a leader. 并不是每一位总统都是领袖。 5. Everything is not perfect. 并非一切都是十全十美的。 6. Both the universities are not ideal. 这两所大学并非都很理想。 19. pull … through: survive or help (sb.) survive a period of danger or crisis We collected some money to pull him and his family through. Finally the company was compelled to ask for a loan from the bank to pull through. Collocation: pull about 把……拖来拖去 pull apart pull away 扯断，撕开 pull back 撤回，改变主意 pull down 脱身，（汽车等）离开 拉下，拆毁 Assignments • Read the new words and go over their usages. • Learn the phrases by heart. • Find difficult sentences and language points. • Do exercises left. • Preview writing.