Semantics and Lexicology

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Semantics and Lexicology
Generativist semantics
From structuralist semantics

Semantic features, components
From generative, formal syntax

Putting meanings together

Using formal, structure-internal, rules

Mentalism, user judgements
To what extent is meaning relevant
in syntax?


Autonomuos syntax

Morris, Carnap: syntax, semantics and pragmatics

Formal syntax in mathematics and logic

Chomsky, Syntactic structures, 1957
Introduction of semantics to generative
grammar


Katz & Fodor
Split: Interpretive semantics and generative
semantics
Katz et al.

Markers and distinguishers

Projections rules

Selection restrictions
Formal rules vs judgements in
context

Can formal rules make the right choice among
senses of lexical items?
Lexical components and syntactic
combination

Markers should express meaning that is
syntactically relevant
Linguistic meaning and world
knowledge

Analytic and synthetic sentences
What is lexical and what is
grammatical?


The enemy destroyed the city
→
the destruction of the city by the enemy ?
(cause x (become (not (alive y)))) → x kill y ?
How much is lexical?

Lexicalism in Generative grammar

Lexical rules in Lexical functional grammar

Construction grammar
Meaning: internal and external



Structuralism: paradigmatic relations
Generativism: internal relations, formal, mental,
syntactic; rationalism
Reintroduction of the external world:

Formal logic with truth conditions

World knowledge, frames

Experiential basis in cognition
How much world knowledge should
be included?

Formal semantics

”Neostructuralist semantics”

Computational linguistics

Cognitive linguistics
Contributions

Combination of meaning

Mental, cognitive perspective
Problems


Semantic combination rather than syntactic
combination of meaning is needed
Relations to the empirical world

World knowledge

Contextual application
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