Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary

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Everyday Use
Chapters 1 & 2 Review
Chapter 1:
• The Big Picture: The Rhetorical Triangle
Interaction between Speaker/Writer,
Audience, and Subject
Influence of Context, Genre, and Intention
Everyday Use
Chapter 1 Summary
Rhetoric in Context
Speaker
Context
genre
intention
Audience
Subject
Everyday Use
Chapters 1 & 2 Review
Chapter 2:
• Rhetoric In Practice:
Invention Strategies = starting point for
both Writer / Speaker and Reader
Importance of Cultural Memory
Everyday Use
Chapters 1 & 2 Review
Invention Strategies:
• Journalist Questions
• Syllogisms & Enthymemes
• Basic Topics
• Common Topics
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Preview
1. We have seen the Big Picture of what
Rhetoric is and how it is used in a variety of
ways.
2. We have been given a variety of starting
points with which to begin using rhetoric in
our reading and writing.
3. This final section will give us very practical
means for rhetorical analysis as readers and
use of rhetorical devices as writers.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Canons of Rhetoric:
•Invention
•Arrangement
•Style
•Memory
•Delivery
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Context:
Text always has a context
Context consists of an occasion, an audience, and a
purpose.
Invented material is arranged in an effective way,
written with style that is appropriate and engaging,
then delivered in the best way possible.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Arrangement:
Principles of arrangement help a writer to:
1. Order and structure parts of a piece of writing
2. Support those parts of writing
Invention and Arrangement work hand-in-hand
Invention: gather and inventory material
Arrangement: select what to use and how to
present it.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Genres:
Genres are types of compositions, based upon
context and purpose.
Each genre has its own set of rules.
No single pattern will work in all situations.
However, all texts have a beginning, middle, and
end.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Genres:
Beginning: States central argument or poses central
question. Preview of text development
Middle: Supports central argument / Answers
central question
End: Wraps up the argument. Asks “So What?”
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Classical Rhetoric: Six-Part Argument
1. Exordium: “web” or hook
2. Narration: background material / context
3. Partition: what will and won’t be included
4. Confirmation: supports argument
5. Refutation: addresses counterarguments
6. Peroration: conclusion / call to action
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style:
Choices regarding words, phrases, sentences.
1. Does style reflect personality?
2. Is style governed by occasion and
appropriateness?
3. Is style a conscious effort?
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and situation:
The answer to most questions about style is “It
depends on the situation.”
Situation: Need to write, writer, audience, subject,
purpose, genre, time, place
Issues of style: figurative language, first-person,
second-person, contractions, active voice,
passive voice.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and jargon:
Admonitions such as “write for the generalized
reader” and “avoid five-dollar words” appear in
many writing handbooks. This is true, to a point
Writing should be accessible to the well-educated,
diligent reader.
Use complicated words when appropriate.
Use specialized vocabulary when appropriate.
Make it accessible. Make it sound natural.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and personal pronouns:
Academic papers: No. Focus is on the subject, not
the author or audience.
Personal response: Yes (It depends).
Business correspondence: Yes.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and personal pronouns:
Formal writing: No.
Informal writing: Yes, depending on intention and
relationship with the reader.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and active vs. passive voice:
Active Voice: Doer – Action – Receiver
The lab technician filtered the solution.
Passive Voice: Receiver – Action (by Doer)
The solution was filtered by the lab technician.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and active vs. passive voice:
Active Voice is preferred because:
1. Active voice is more forceful.
2. Passive voice uses more words (helping verbs).
3. Passive voice conceals the doer of the action.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Style and active vs. passive voice:
Advantages of Passive Voice:
1. More conducive to scientific and technical
writing (emphasis on what is done, rather than
who does it).
2. Emphasis can be placed on the doer by moving
the subject to the end of the sentence.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Dimensions of style: Sentences, words, & figures
Sentences: grammatical type, placement of details,
variety
Words: level of elaborateness and formality,
difficulty, technicality
Figures: schemes and tropes, figurative language
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Sentences:
Simple Sentence: a single independent clause
Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union.
Simple sentences can have a compound subject,
compound verb, or both.
Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson struggled to
save the Union.
Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union and
persevered.
Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson struggled to
save the Union and persevered.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Sentences:
Compound Sentence: two independent clauses
joined by a conjunction.
Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union,
and Andrew Johnson helped him.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Sentences:
Complex Sentence: one independent clause
and at least one subordinate clause.
When the leaders of the Confederacy insisted
that the rights of the states were more
important than the maintenance of the Union,
Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson struggled
to save the Union and persevered.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Sentences:
Compound-Complex Sentence: has defining
features of both a compound and complex
sentence.
When the leaders of the Confederacy insisted
that the rights of the states were more
important than the maintenance of the Union,
Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union
and persevered, and Andrew Johnson assisted
him.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Loose and Periodic Sentences:
Use the sentence type that best fits your purpose.
Basic sentences: subject, verb, compliments
Abraham Lincoln wept.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Loose and Periodic Sentences:
Loose Sentences: a basic sentence with details
added immediately at the end.
Abraham Lincoln wept, fearing that the Union
would not survive if the southern states
seceded.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Loose and Periodic Sentences:
Periodic Sentences: a basic sentence with details
added either before the basic elements, or in
the middle of the basic elements.
Alone in his study, dejected but not broken in
spirit, Abraham Lincoln wept.
Abraham Lincoln, alone in his study, wept.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Loose and Periodic Sentences:
The structure of a sentence affects the way it is read
and understood.
Pacing:
Loose – faster pace, crisp, business-like
Periodic – delays, balanced, thoughtful
Sentence structure says much about the writer and
his purpose, credibility (ethos), and goals.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Parallel Structure:
Two or more similar ideas expressed in
grammatically similar ways.
Most obvious when parallel structure is absent.
In these moments, Rivka discovers the bitter
truth about her husband’s hidden life, her son’s
death, and that Herman was not sending her
letters all along.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Parallel Structure:
Correct Parallel Structure:
In these moments, Rivka discovers the truth
about her husband’s hidden life, her son’s
death, and Herman’s deceit about the letters.
(all are noun phrases)
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Parallel Structure:
Parallel Structure exists on phrase level and the
sentence level.
“we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we
cannot hallow this ground…”
“government of the people, by the people, for
the people”
Activity on page 72.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words:
Diction: word choice (Latin dictio = style of speech)
Diction depends on situation and genre
Ask “What is my purpose, who is my audience, and
what kind of text am I writing?”
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: General vs. Specific
Ladder of Abstraction:
higher = abstract
lower = specific
A good writer can move up and down the ladder
easily.
Movement depends on situation and genre
What is most useful to the audience?
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: Formal vs. Informal
Diction should fit occasion.
Formal: no contractions, no first- or second-person
Informal: contractions, first-person, limited second
person, slang, colloquialisms
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: Formal vs. Informal
Pronouns & antecedents must agree in number and
gender.
Gender agreement:
switch back and forth
he or she; he/she
pluralize
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: Latinate vs. Anglo-Saxon
English is a hybrid language
Old English comes from Anglo-Saxon languages
Norman invasion brought Romance languages
Latinate: formal, multisyllabic; prefix-root-suffix
Anglo-Saxon: informal, monosyllabic
“magnanimous” (L) vs. “kind” (A-S)
Activity on page 77
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: Common Terms vs. Jargon & Slang
Slang: language of a particular group (informal)
Jargon: specialized language of a group (formal)
Using slang or jargon might obscure meaning, rather
than clarify.
But, it can lend credibility with that particular group
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Words: Denotation & Connotation
Denotation: literal meaning of a word
Connotation: association evoked by a word
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Figures of Rhetoric: Schemes and Tropes
Scheme: artful variation from typical arrangement
of words in a sentence.
Trope: artful arrangement from typical way a word
or idea is expressed.
A different way of saying something is also a
different way of seeing something.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving balance: Parallelism
Parallelism of words:
Scientists argue that exercise benefits a person’s heart and lungs,
muscles and nerves, and joints and cartilage.
Parallelism of phrases:
Scientists argue that exercise helps a person breathe more
effectively, move with less discomfort, and avoid injury.
Parallelism of clauses:
Scientists argue that aerobics is the most efficient class, that
aerobics participants gain more stamina, and that aerobics is less
expensive.
All of these are examples of zeugma.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving balance: Antithesis
Antithesis of words:
When runners reach the state they call “the zone,” they find
themselves mentally engaged yet detached.
Antithesis of phrases:
When runners reach the state they call “the zone,” they find
themselves mentally engaged with their physical surroundings
yet detached from the concerns of their conditioning.
Antithesis of clauses:
When runners reach the state they call “the zone,” they find that
they are engaged with their physical surroundings, yet they are
also completely detached from the concerns of their
conditioning.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving balance: Antimetabole
Antimetabole: words are repeated in different
grammatical forms
“When the going gets tough, the tough get going”
(adjective becomes noun; noun becomes verb)
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving interruption:
Parenthesis: interruption of sentence to insert an
important information
Sports night always brings out the would-be jocks – who would
expect any different? – ready to show that they’re potentially as
good as the varsity players.
Sports night always brings out the would-be jocks (who would
expect any different?) ready to show that they’re potentially as
good as the varsity players.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving interruption:
Expletive: interruption of sentence to insert an
exclamatory word, phrase, or clause
When sports night is cancelled – oh, sorrowful day! – all the
would-be jocks get a case of show-off withdrawal.
Appositive: parenthetical phrase, modifies previous
element.
Joey Wilson, a pioneer in personal weight training, would marvel
at the facilities open to today’s athletes.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving omission:
Used for rhythmic or dramatic effect
Ellipsis: omission of words, meaning is understood
by context
In a hockey power play, if you pass the puck to the wing, and he
[passes] to you, then you can close in on the goal.
Asyndeton: omission of conjunctions
I skated, I shot, I scored, I cheered – what a glorious moment.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving repetition:
“Don’t be repetitive, but use repetition.”
Alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds
Intramural hockey is a strenuous, stimulating, satisfying sport.
Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds
A workout partner is a kind, reliable, right-minded helper.
Anaphora: repetition of words at the beginning of
sentences or clauses
Exercise builds stamina in children; exercise builds stamina in
adults; exercise builds stamina in senior citizens.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving repetition:
Epistrophe: repetition of words at the end of
sentences or clauses
To become a top-notch athlete, I thought like an athlete, I
trained like an athlete, I ate like an athlete.
Anadiplosis: repetition of the last word of one
phrase at the beginning of the next
Mental preparation leads to training; training builds muscle tone
and coordination; muscle tone and coordination produce athletic
excellence.
Everyday Use
Chapter 3 Summary
Schemes involving repetition:
Climax: repetition of words and phrases in order of
increasing importance
Excellent athletes need to be respectful to themselves, their
teammates, their schools, and their communities.
Anadiplosis + Climax = “climbing the ladder”
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