Chapter 35 section 3: The Collapse of the Soviet Union

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Chapter 35 section 3:
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Democratic reforms bring important changes to the
Soviet Union
Do Now: Complete the primary source political cartoon
Gorbachev moves
toward democracy
• Politburo- ruling committee of
Communist Party;
– rules USSR harshly
• Leonid Brezhnev dies in 1982;
– two successors rule briefly
• Mikhail Gorbachev- becomes
Soviet leader in 1984
• Young, energetic, skilled and
wants to pursue new policies
1985: Gorbachev & the Era of
Reform
• Glasnosts- openness
-increased political freedoms
Economic
• Perestroikarestructuring
-economy more efficient
• Democratization-
Communism
Politicial
-gradual change to political
system
Social
• Foreign Policy-December 1987-(INF)Intermediate Range Nuclear
Forces Treaty- arms race
control
New Policies
• To achieve economic reforms, he needs to open
dialogue in society
– Promotes new policy of glasnost– openness; dissent allowed
• People complained about a lack of goods;
–
–
–
–
Gorbachev blames old system
he introduces perestroikapolicy of economic restructuring
Hope to make economy more efficient and productive
New Policies Continued
Democratization opens the political
system
• In 1987, he unveils plans to have more
democracy
• Voters, given a choice, elect many
reformers to new legislature
Foreign Policy
• Gorbachev signs arms control agreements
with US
Soviet Union Faces Turmoil
• Gorbachev wants to reform Soviet Union
but reforms lead to collapse
• Non-Russian ethnic groups rebel in
different republics
Lithuania defies Gorbachev
• In 1990, Lithuania declares independence
• Gorbachev fearing similar actions in other
republics sends troops
• Reformer Boris Yeltsin rallies people
against Communist old guard
• Old-time Communists oppose both
Gorbachev and Yeltsin
The Soviet Union Faces Turmoil
August Coup
• In August 1991, hard
liners try to seize control
of the government again
• Thousands of protesters
and Yeltsin rally against
this move
• Army refuses to attack
protesters and coup
collapses
End of the Soviet Union
• Government takes
actions to punish
Communist Party for
coup
• Many republics declare
independence
• Gorbachev cannot stop
them
• Republics form a
federation, CISCommonwealth of
Independent States
CIS- Commonwealth of
Independent States
Russia under Boris Yeltsin
• Yeltsin aims to reform the Russian
economy
• Tries “shock therapy”- quick transition to
free market system
• New policies bring economic chaos,
hardship and political troubles
Chechnya Rebels
• In 1991, Chechnya declares
independence from Russia
• Yeltsin attempts to crush rebellion, causing
unrest at home
• As conflict continues in 1999, he resigns in
favor of Vladimir Putin
Russia under Vladimir Putin
• Fighting drags on in Chechnya
• In 2002, Chechen rebels seize theater in
Moscow; many die
• As of 2007, the rebels have been largely quieted
• Economic problems continue leading to unstable
politics
• Social problems include homelessness and
unemployment
• Decline in average life expectancy
Soviet Union/ Russian Leaders
Gorbachev
•Used glasnost & perestroika to change Soviet Union’s
government & economy
•Ended Cold War tensions
•Helped to end communism throughout Eastern Europe
Yeltsin
•Struggled with transition from communism to democracy
•Industry and farms were privatized
•Food shortages increased
•Unemployment rose
Putin
• lessened power of regional leaders
•Exerted control of DUMA, Russian legislature
•New relations with the West
•2002 signed arms reduction
•Led to economic growth
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